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Your Microbiome and Your Brain

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We've talked about the trillions of microbes inside you before, but we're learning that these little creatures may have more influence than you thought! Meet your Microbiome: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ybk7E7SLbWw Hosted by: Olivia Gordon ---------- Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/scishow ---------- Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters—we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shoutout to Kevin Bealer, Mark Terrio-Cameron, KatieMarie Magnone, Patrick Merrithew, Charles Southerland, Fatima Iqbal, Sultan Alkhulaifi, Tim Curwick, Scott Satovsky Jr, Philippe von Bergen, Bella Nash, Chris Peters, Patrick D. Ashmore, Piya Shedden, Charles George ---------- Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet? Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/scishow Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/scishow Tumblr: http://scishow.tumblr.com Instagram: http://instagram.com/thescishow ---------- Sources: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228144/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC414848/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039072/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367209/ https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-0897-4_3 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3564958/ http://www.nature.com/news/the-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 http://www.nature.com/news/gut-brain-link-grabs-neuroscientists-1.16316 http://www.gastrojournal.org/article/S0016-5085(11)00607-X/abstract?referrer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nature.com%2Fnews%2Fthe-tantalizing-links-between-gut-microbes-and-the-brain-1.18557 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1664925/ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4362231/ Images https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gray848.png https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Serotonin-Spartan-HF-based-on-xtal-3D-balls-web.png
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Text Comments (932)
yowandbm (4 days ago)
Serotonin in the future does not go through blood-brain barrier, but cause inflammation in the gut. So gut serotonin is not good for you.
yowandbm (4 days ago)
In the gut, not future..fckn autocorrect
Nikhil Gulati (8 days ago)
BubblewrapOracle (18 days ago)
I'd like to know how honey affects this, being anti-bacterial and all?
Kalvin Labuik (1 month ago)
wait a second I do believe there is some yogurts with both probiotics and prebiotics if am not mistaken so my daughter with social anxiety depression ocd  should maybe put more yogurt into daily diet then ???
Ivana Mandic (2 months ago)
Gotta donate a fecal transplant!
kill me (2 months ago)
I think the microbiome is responsible for maintaining intestinal acidity which pushes gas out of the digestive system so if you don't have a healthy microbiome, then gas becomes trapped in your system and that's what causes low serotonin levels. It can be temporarily fixed by chugging an acidic beverage such as grapefruit juice.
so does everbody have a unique population of microbiomes? or we don't know that yet?
peavri (2 months ago)
I can guess it is because the bacteria help to absorb better nutrients y vitamins.
Matthew Semenuk (3 months ago)
so does this mean we don't know what bacteria are real probiotic? as some probictic microbes we thought were good could be affecting the brain negatively, and probably causing the sale of more mental health medications.
Pero Peric (3 months ago)
Good vid, but please slow down, pause, let the viewers digest the info. Cheers ;)
Renata Pammer (3 months ago)
I suffer from a migraine sometimes. I noticed that when I have a migraine, my bowel movement is so different than usual
Stephen Paul (3 months ago)
Presenter seemed very earnest about her subject but what possesses her to wave her arms around like the puppets in Thunderbirds (British TV series from 1960s)?
king james488 (3 months ago)
mice are used to new environments... scientists are idiots.
ledjdm (3 months ago)
theres the old saying "you are what you eat". seems to be confirmed!
chinookvalley (3 months ago)
RoundUp weed killer was initially invented to be used as an antibiotic that was to kill ALL microbes. Well, they found that it does, and then some. It kills all plants and all bacteria in the soil. It kills bugs/insects, birds, mice, and the animals that ingest those. Antibiotics are deadly for flora and fauna by killing the immune systems.
chinookvalley (3 months ago)
Our dog got a steroid injection last year (without our permission from the vet). Within seconds he started panting, his eyes bulged out, he went from calm to hyper in minutes - and it hasn't stopped. The poor dog was bouncing off the walls jumping and freaking out. He was very well trained and knew many commands and tricks, and that all went away. We were afraid we would have to have him euthanized because he was out of control and a nervous wreck, us too! We dealt with this for all this time, then started him on high amounts of probiotics. Guess what? He is calming down, and his eyes have pretty much stopped bulging. I feel so bad for animals and people who are the victims of the ignorance and stupidity of people in the medical profession who have no idea of what they are doing - and don't bother to learn the truth of their profession - which is NOT to heal but gain a profit, or who just don't give a damn. There ARE safe alternatives to steroids and other deadly drugs. Great video. (Funny how the word "probiotics" isn't accepted as a word by YouTube. Censorship.)
chinookvalley (3 months ago)
I went to my neurologist a few years ago and asked if my Vagus Nerve could be affecting my Fibromyalgia, Mitochondrial Myopathy, and Traumatic Brain Injury thru my gut. He got really nervous, called his nurse and they took me into his office and closed the door. They asked how I knew about the Vagus Nerve, they were angry, they said I didn't know what I was talking about, and that I should forget what I was talking about. They took me into another office and wanted me to discuss this with another one of the PA's there. I left and never went back. How many physicians KNOW that the cures are easily found - cutting their practices out of the profits to be made. Do I seem paranoid? Not really, just waking up to what the medical "industry" is doing, and how cures are not welcome. I eat my yoghurt, and have increased my probiotics, see my Naturopathic Doctor, and guess what? I'm getting better!
thetommantom (3 months ago)
Eating food makes people feel good. Little food crumbs don't get pumped into your brain. The things that "eat" your food might not want to or be able to get inside your brain either. Doesn't mean that the byproducts don't fit. Example like sugar gets broken down into different pieces than fat. Except this list is incredibly complex not just two different things. Maybe out of the mix some things can only eat certain things so eating only explicitly one thing might help only certain things thrive. Maybe like a garden, feeding flowers. Certain foods grow certain flowers that react certain ways.
Ikaika Arnado (3 months ago)
I really like the presenter's braid...
travin (3 months ago)
Also keep in mind, our gut is the brain we had before we had a brain. And plays a huge role in addiction, including cravings for sugar and other chemicals.
Amy Pola (4 months ago)
A new environment might come with new microbes and therefore alleviate stress. I don't know if the mice would know that, but the microbes might.
raedwulf61 (4 months ago)
Scientists were wrong? How can it be- they're our new gods!
Randy Bostic (4 months ago)
How do radionuclides in fallout from a nuclear disaster affect the microbiome? And can't radioactive particles punch holes through intestinal lining and brain barrier?
Angelika Hemker (4 months ago)
This is a super-interesting and extremely well-done presentation. I have just gone through an entire course on the microbiome on the edX platform which I think is rather boring in comparison. Thank you very much and keep up the fantastic work!
Presque vu (5 months ago)
Perhaps a strain of gut bacteria will be discovered to inhibit wild gesticulating by Youtube presenters.
venkat (5 months ago)
Poor mouse!
Nunya Bizness (5 months ago)
Very informative. Thanks.
Dik van Achteren (5 months ago)
In a video about the microbiome the channel What I’ve Learned made, he talks about how certain bacteria might cause autism. He tells the story of a kid who was developing normally, but after several antibiotics courses started acting weird and was later diagnosed with severe autism. Noticing a link between the antibiotics and the sudden autism, the mother dove into the studies and found that antibiotics could cause autism-like behaviour in mice. Antibiotics targeted a lot of bacteria, but not a certain bacterium which was also overly present in autistic children’s guts. So she found a doctor willing to experiment and gave her son a antibiotic targeted specifically at this bacterium and the autism in the kid slowly became less. I find it very interesting how much your microbiome affects your brain and how it could be the cause of a lot of mental issues. Another example: a transplantation of gut microbiome between two sisters led the receiving sister to become overweight like the other sister, even though she didn’t change her diet or workout schedule. Future research about this topic really could result in a lot of problems disappearing, it’s amazing
Obey Silence (5 months ago)
I think she doesn´t has diahrrea
Tamara Frank (5 months ago)
Literally 3 1/2 years ago I had to go to a doctor because I was severely ill. He doesn't go through insurance because he really tries to get to the root of the problem. He found out my whole GI tract was inflamed and I had horrible IBS (while my other dr just said pretty much that's the way it is). When he told me that 80-85% of serotonin was made in my gut and could explain why I was so severely depressed and having over 10 panic attacks a day. Once he worked on helping heal my gut- I honestly had hope again. I thought I was dying and there was no way out of the mental hell I was in. By the grace of God. I am doing so much better. And honestly, could be doing even better. I just need to be more intentional. But he knew all of this stuff for years!! If you are not doing well. How is your gut?? I now don't eat gluten (inflamitory or milk) to keep the inflammation a bay. I know some people don't get this whole gluten then but trust me. If you have ibs, anxiety, depression, getting sick all the time-, there's a reason. Don't just let a doctor give you some pills to manage it. Dive in and find what's the problem. There's hope! I will share this with who ever because I know the mental hell and physical pain and how hard that was.
Tim's List (5 months ago)
One time.. At band camp.. All my sentences sounds like I'm asking a question?
Gary Ary Ry Y (5 months ago)
AntI BIOtiCs CAUse autiSm
Wood Choppa (5 months ago)
When someone say "my gut is telling me ....", that means that their gut were actually telling them
Sonya Morrell (5 months ago)
Jesus this woman gets on the nerves . Is it a frikin robot. Shifting the body around like one aswell as the voice. Can't listen to this
Praepes (5 months ago)
John Green certainly had this video on the mind while he was writing Turtles All the Way Down!
Lynda Murray (6 months ago)
Go vegan!
Rhiannon's birds (6 months ago)
I'm really anticipating more findings because, as a migraineur, my personal experience is one of both brain and gut suffering.
Gwen Hamer (7 months ago)
There are current studies looking at the bacteria in the gut of "normal" people and comparing to the gut bacteria people with MS. From what I have heard there are significant differences.
King Tero (7 months ago)
Change the host please that lady make me crazy moving all the time give her son pills to stay callm.
Jacob Levinson (7 months ago)
Everytime I open a SciShow video now I open the description box and if Ms. Gordon is "hosting" I down vote and feel really sad because her voice and style are keeping knowledge from me. I am glad that others can enjoy the content. More Hank and Michael!!!
June Burton (7 months ago)
Dimethyl Tryptomine
Joe Botz (8 months ago)
Psilocybin passes right through that barrier
Abraham Presilla (8 months ago)
I am trully wond3ering about if it is that is a factor of mood...what is exactly about the cosmic energy that one carries..chakras Kundalini call in what it is. what is that concept on science
fuckfannyfiddlefart (8 months ago)
fuckfannyfiddlefart (8 months ago)
Whole food Vegan, the only way to a health.
kd8lvt (8 months ago)
Great video! I don't know if anyone has tested this, but could the reason the mice were getting more stressed be because their gut wasn't creating as much seratonin, due to the reduced variety of gut microbes? I didn't read the paper, but it seems plausible to me.
Doug sillig (8 months ago)
Do the microbiom and hand movements. Hahaha or nose rings and sinus microbioms and the brain. She has 1 in16 people dislike, I am one.
Goonky (8 months ago)
Feel free to remove that metallic booger in your next video.
TheGesox (8 months ago)
i want to date her :)
TheGesox (8 months ago)
i want to date her :)
John Denaci (8 months ago)
I hate your septum, but you're a good host.
Mr. Fizzy (8 months ago)
Could the microbiome/brain connection be in part due to the "second brain" is directly influenced by the molecules that are created by the microbiome? I suspect it is something like someone having a conversation with their friends and bringing the conversation to you. It isn't a direct influence but an influence none the less.
Corinn Heathers (8 months ago)
olivia always has a much, much higher number of dislikes than hank or the other guy who I can't remember his name men are so fragile
MrHltler (8 months ago)
Doesn’t this provide complications for the head transplant of humans?
G Blake (8 months ago)
Make her stop
007Chakochi (8 months ago)
Amazing. Thanks for the video.
Tmo (8 months ago)
They should be looking into the dietary preferences of people with autism spectrum disorders and what it does to their gut biome. These ppl tend to like sugary/sweet foods and specific textures/consistencies. Excess sugar feeds a type of gut bacteria you don't want to proliferate too much and there are early findings that show ppl with autism have weak gut biomes because they have too many of these microbes and not enough of others.
Scereyaha (8 months ago)
What if it's that we rely on gut bacteria to help us process certain molecules out of our food, or create molecules that aren't actually directly present in most food. Our bodies make biochemicals out of different things we get from our diet, some "building blocks" might be a lot easier to make certain biochemicals out of [like how if you take "precursors" to a specific chemical our bodies synthesize that into the intended thing], so maybe part of why these bacteria have a symbiotic relationship with us is that they specifically digest food in our intestines and produce by-products that make our body's job easier when it comes to making certain compounds. Have we checked in on what the specific "waste" products are of these bacteria and what our body metabolizes those things into?
Haus of Miklaus (8 months ago)
Of course SciShow would be super beneficial to my dissertation work. Thank you.
Honey Dubey (8 months ago)
Very informative but your braid tripped me out for a bit.
Arda Yaman (9 months ago)
could you please elaborate (or give further reading) on "Up to 80% of it (serotonin) is made in your gut" @6:37
sicktoaster (9 months ago)
How did biologists ever make the mistake of thinking this was impossible? Even with the blood-brain barrier, neurotransmitters aren't made from magic, they have precursors and some of those precursors must (and have been proven to)* come from beyond the blood-brain barrier or there would be no material available to the brain to then turn into neurotransmitters. It then easily follows that anything that effects the movement of and availability of those chemicals which are able to cross the barrier will effect those neurotransmitters. Since gut bacteria impacts metabolism therefore it effects how much of those chemicals will remain in the body and hence the amount that has a chance of going in the brain versus going out as waste. *For example, Tryptophan becomes 5HTP which is able to cross the barrier which becomes serotonin which then can't cross the barrier, phenylalanine and tyrosine become L-DOPA which can cross the barrier which then becomes dopamine which cannot.
Nmethyltransferase (9 months ago)
Why does ketamine work (whereas memantine fails) for depression?
johnmark gibson (9 months ago)
Cool new host!
shikha patel (9 months ago)
Sir,please make a vedio on sprit and soul. What is the difference between those.
brujaja Aknot Wrought (9 months ago)
Sofie P (10 months ago)
I feel like Aza would probably freak the eff out if she watched this.
64standardtrickyness (10 months ago)
so I CAN fill that hole in my heart with food I just haven't found the right food.
festforce5 (10 months ago)
We want Hank Green back!
Pierce Stacey (3 months ago)
Sam Kelly I didn't interpret the original comment as having anything to do with the gender of the presenter.
Sam Kelly (6 months ago)
excuse me you don't speak on behalf of all scishow fans so let me rephrase your comment "I'm a petty misogynist prick and I want a male host back because it make me uncomfortable when I see intelligent women"
Jørgen Westgaard (10 months ago)
Am i watching the big bang theory right now?
Tyler Kline (10 months ago)
Digest gold mo fos
Justin Cronkright (10 months ago)
Quick --- potential solution answers: Stress of being handled when Germ-Free perhaps from a lack of Initially balanced stress levels because of a lack in having to deal with any early life infections (similar to how certain allergies can be mitigated or reduced by certain kinds of immune attacks by microbes [there was a study I can't remember where on how living/staying for extended periods of time near farms with obvious manure spreading practices in place meaning more inhanced airborne bacterial spreading]). Secondly the next part of ''Lack of new environment stress'' could maybe be attributed like the first to a lack of early life infection, where (perhaps but not necessarily) my main aversion to certain types of travelling or travelling to specific locations would be 'Anticipated and Suspected' potential harm through new infections. Perhaps I am cognicant of the potential new infections and therefore they deter my travels, or perhaps it is somewhat pre-existing and induced in mice only if they were like myself infected early then placed in a new environment, since they can't intuit as well as we all can (I would imagine).
Atom Smith (1 year ago)
That voice though... ("And what do I do with my hands?")
Shayla Malm (1 year ago)
My gut and brain must be not communicating. I never feel hungry. F#!k.
Adr Raz (1 year ago)
Doan Tran (1 year ago)
But a serotonin molecule can't be absorbed into the blood brain barrier so how much serotonin produced in the gut is irrelevant to mood changes
Doan Tran (1 year ago)
Depending on that logic
Timo A (1 year ago)
Sorry but her voice is not suitable for a host. I'm sure she is better at something else.
what is dripping out of her nose?
Sara Eftekhari (1 year ago)
If the aim was to see the affect of stress on mice, why starve? Starvation is guaranteed to whack the microbiome. You're trying to measure the affect of stress not lack of food on microbiome, right? Instead using other stimulus like, say, sounds of predatory birds, and then inspecting for any change in microbiome would be a better controlled study. Similarly, checking what a change in diet does to mood would be interesting. Affect of starvation on mood may be linked to microbiomes. This link itself is worth the study. Overall, very thought provoking video. I just had to spill my train of thoughts somewhere so I could comprehend the new info better. (Iban not sorry ^w^)
avicohen2k (1 year ago)
whats so complicated? the bacteria doesnt go thorugh the ens, it stress or destress the gut itself which inturn affects the signals the ens sends and therefore effecting the brain. your welcome.
Mike Builds (1 year ago)
Science is something crazy
Leo N (1 year ago)
So this means when I drink a shot, I comment a microbial genicide? FYI: You look cute.
Patrick Hodson (1 year ago)
There's a thing that can happen where yeast becomes a part of your microbiome, and it causes you to get dangerously drunk when you eat too much sugar and simple carbs like bread. It can be hard to diagnose because it's pretty rare, and because doctors tend not to believe the patients when they come to the hospital drunk and say they haven't been drinking.
Sriram Ramesh (1 year ago)
You could say some people can get a gut feeling.
Lilly Belle (1 year ago)
Poor mice.
premier69 (1 year ago)
PLEASE stop having her, some people just don't fit in the role.
rimpurimpu1 (1 year ago)
You guys wave your hands so much
Jay Atherton (1 year ago)
Thanks for doing an episode on this; I've been wanting one for a while.
vinkuu (1 year ago)
Why do so many intellectual people (ab)use what we call drugs?
jon doe (1 year ago)
Bacteria: hey girl, let me get up in that microbiome
Brad Newberry (1 year ago)
Anyone else feel like the host is like Ricky Bobbie in an interview where he doesn’t know what to do with his hands. Don’t usually criticize hosts but this is just funny.
Danail Irinkov (1 year ago)
Maybe you intend this video to be watched by mice?
Danail Irinkov (1 year ago)
thats a bunch of non actionable, mice data.... 10 minutes of this ? really?
brujaja Aknot Wrought (1 year ago)
This is deeply fascinating. It kind of makes me wonder if an individual's microbiome is involved in the cluster of information and conditions we refer to as wisdom.
Annie Andersson (1 year ago)
Someone who knows a bit more, what does this mean for a person who has had their colon removed for completely other reasons? Will I now have chronic depression bc serotonin deficency?
senselocke (1 year ago)
The "germfree mice" were isolated from their mothers. The gene that commands rats to produce Glucocorticoid Receptor proteins is turned off by default, only a pup that is extensively groomed by its mother has those epigenetic markers removed and develop normal levels of GR in the brain. GR are necessary for shutting down the stress response and coping with stresses. http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/epigenetics/rats/ Rats and mice aren't the same species, but they're very closely related, and similar results have been found in mice brains and the AVP gene: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK107193/ How did the scientists conducting this study correct for the effect of the mice not developing normal stress response by being isolated from their mothers?
D0TheMath (1 year ago)
the germs are learning how to mind control us!! OMG we are all dead!!!
insertnamehere001 (1 year ago)
As the old saying goes: 'the way to a man's heart is through his stomach'.
Joshua Olorocisimo (1 year ago)
I'm currently working on this for my thesis and it's really interesting!!
Howell Q'agan (1 year ago)
Some constructive criticism for Olivia, when gesticulating with your hands, don't bend your elbows more than 90° too often. It makes people look like they can't do anything with their arms and hands.

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