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Gilman Reagent Coupling Reaction Examples: Alkyl Halides, Esters, & Acyl Chlorides
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial discusses the reaction mechanism of the gilman reagent in addition to how to synthesize using an alkyl halide and lithium. This video provides a lot of gilman reagent coupling reaction examples including the reaction of the gilman reagent also known as organocopperlithium reagent with an alkyl halide, an ester, and an acid or acyl chloride. gilman reagents have the formula R2CuLi and are also known as lithium dialkyl cuprates. It's an organometallic compound.
Chapter 11 -- Organometallic Chemistry, Part 1 of 4: Grignard and organolithium reactions
 
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In this video I'll teach you about organic reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents.
Views: 29852 Mike Christiansen
Enolate Ion Reaction Mechanism Formation - Alkylation, Acylation, Carboxylation, Michael Addition
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial discusses the reaction mechanism of the enolate ion and how it can be used for direct alkylation, acylation, carboxylation, michael addition, and how it can react with an epoxide using LDA. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems.
Grignard Reagent Synthesis Reaction Mechanism - Organic Chemistry
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial discusses the synthesis reaction mechanism of grignard reagents with water - H2O, D2O, aldehyes including formaldehyde, ketones, esters, acid chlorides, epoxides - ethylene oxide, CO2, etc. This video contains examples and practice problems that not only help you to predict the major product of the reaction but also how to choose the right reagents to synthesize a primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohol. In addition, other reactions were included in this video such as oxidation by H2CrO4, PCC, KMnO4 & H3O+, in addition to Na2Cr2O7 with H2SO4. Reduction of an alkyne to a cis alkene using H2 & lindlar's catalyst and to a trans alkene using Na and NH3 were also considered. The conversion of an alcohol into an alkyl halide using SOCl2 and PBr3 were also mentioned. The reagents used in this video include phenyl magnesium bromide, methyl magnesium bromide, ethyl magnesium bromide, acetyl chloride, cyclopentyl magnesium bromide, acetaldehyde, 2-butanone, etc.
The Birch Reduction
 
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In this video, we explore the Birch Reduction by carrying it out on benzene. This is a very useful reaction and it is pretty cool to carry out too. A photo of a typical mechanism: http://www.chemgapedia.de/vsengine/media/vsc/en/ch/12/oc/radikale/birch_reduktion/birch_mechanismus_en.gif Depending on the groups attached to the ring, the mechanism does change a little bit and it produces a product that is reduced at different places. Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=2448989&ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Nile-Red-1648800202046876/
Views: 137589 NileRed
Lithium Aluminum Hydride LiAlH4 Reduction Reaction + Mechanism
 
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Leah4sci.com/redox presents: Carbonyl Reduction using LiAlH4 - Lithium Aluminum Hydride. Reaction, Mechanism and examples. Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video breaks down the reducing agent LiAlH4 to help you understand its reactivity with carbonyl compounds including aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, and amides. This is video 7 in the Organic Chemistry Oxidation/Reduction video series. Catch the entire series along with my redox practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website: http://leah4sci.com/redox For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 40958 Leah4sci
Carboxylic Acid Derivative Mechanisms - Acid Chlorides, Amides, Esters, Anhydrides, Lactones
 
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This video focuses on the reaction mechanism associated with carboxylic acid derivatives interconverting between acid chlorides, carboxylic acid, amides, esters, lactones, anhydrides, and nitriles.
Alkali Metals - 11   Lithium nitride
 
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Exploring the uses of lithium nitride - the product that forms when lithium reacts with nitrogen in the air. From the Peter Wothers lecture series - The Alkali Metals
Gilman vs Grignard Reagent - Conjugate Addition - Organometallic Compounds
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial discusses the difference between the gilman reagent and the grignard reagent as it relates to the conjugate addition reaction of 2-cyclohexenone (michael acceptor) which is associated with a michael addition like reaction. In addtion, the mechanism for those reactions are also provided as well as the organometallic coupling reactions of gilman and grignard reagents with esters and acid chlorides.
Organic Chemistry 51C. Lecture 19. Organometallic Reactions in Organic Synthesis.
 
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UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 19. Organic Chemistry -- Organometallic Reactions in Organic Synthesis -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem. http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html Recorded on June 7, 2012 Index of Topics: 3:52-Grignard Reagent 7:01-Organometallic Complex 12:47-Organocopper Reagents 23:05-Organocuprate Mechanism 25:17-Stereospecificity 32:02-Drawbacks of Copper Chemistry 33:55-Suzuki Reaction 42:48-3 Main Steps to the Suzuki Mechanism 55:37-Using the Suzuki Reaction in Organic Synthesis 1:03:00-Olefin Metathesis 1:11:16-Partner Swapping Mechanism 1:15:20-Ring-Closing Metathesis Required attribution: Nowick, James S. Organic Chemistry 51C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US).
Views: 18342 UCI Open
NaBH4 and LiAlH4 Reduction Mechanism Made Easy! | Organic Chemistry
 
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If you are having trouble with the Reduction Mechanism of NaBH4 (Sodium Borohydride) or LiAlH4 (Lithium Aluminium Hydride) this is the perfect video lesson for you! (Note there is a little correction, please check below for it. My LiAlH4 Mechanism for the reduction of the carboxylic acid needs to be edited. Sorry!) Got a final or MCATs coming up? Test your skills when it comes to reducing agents in this video! Sorry about being a little M.I.A. lately but you guys get an extra long video in compensation :]. It's actually my longest video thus far. I'm usually a bit OCD about long videos but I made sure I packed in some fun and change in scenery here and there to keep you guys awake. Also part of the reason why it's so long is that I combined the "bloopers and outtakes" with this video and they are in the end for any one not taking Orgo anymore and just want to see some fun parts. :] ●LiAlH4 Reaction Map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/LAH_rxns.png ●Correction! Special thanks to Bhaveya Saraogi who pointed it out to me. But my LiAlH4 Reduction Mechanism for the Carboxylic Acid needs to be tweaked a little. I double checked some resources and I must have gotten the mechanism for LiAlH4 reduction of esters and carboxylic acids mixed up. So everything is correct in this video except for the the first and second step of my LiAlH4 Reduction of the Carboxylic Acid. And the mechanism I show for the Carboxylic Acid would apply if you were reducing an Ester down to an alcohol. Sorry again for any confusion! The correct mechanism is here if you'd like to check: http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Organic_Chemistry/Carboxylic_Acids/Reactions_of_Carboxylic_Acids/Conversion_of_carboxylic_acids_to_alcohols_using_LiAlH4. ●Why is LiAlH4 Stronger at Reducing than NaBH4? - http://youtu.be/oJyVWsygzEc ●Reduction of Ketones and Aldehdyes Made Easy! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xBdyVAcTJ2g ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ● We Are Orgo Made Easy! (Welcome Part 1) - (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5b0ugnM3Uw) ● 7 Must Know Resources for Organic Chemistry! (Welcome Part 2) - (https://youtu.be/1QkGxQCI1es) http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/extra-resources/ ●Become a Patron + Free Private Tutoring Lottery! http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy (In-Person or Skype!) ●Private Tutoring Information: I offer in-person private tutoring in Boston and NYC, and if you live elsewhere on this awesome planet I offer online Skype tutoring that is accompanied with a whiteboard program. For more info check here: http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/Private-Tutoring/ and contact me via my "Orgo Made Easy" Facebook page or email: OrgoMadeEasy@Gmail.com Make sure you share this with your friends if you found it helpful, and I would love it if you leave some comments to let me know if I'm on the right track ;). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subscribe to get updated when I make new videos! https://www.youtube.com/user/OrgoMadeEasy/about?sub_confirmation=1 Connect with me on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter! Facebook-------------------------------https://Facebook.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/FrankMWong Official Website-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/ Help Support Me Here--------------http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy Private Tutoring-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/private-tutoring/ Tweet Tweet---------------------------https://Twitter.com/OrgoMadeEasy
Views: 64508 Frank Wong
Organic Chemistry 51C. Lecture 09. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amides, & Nitriles.
 
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UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 09. Organic Chemistry -- Reactions of Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amides, & Nitriles -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem. http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html Recorded on May 1, 2012 Index of Topics: 0:56-Esters and Carboxylic Acids Reactivity 9:29-Fischer Esterification 16:41-Fischer Esterification Mechanism 29:52-Hydrolysis of Esters 32:13-Saporification 37:27-Amides and Nitriles 53:36-Making Acid Chlorides 58:11-Making Amides 1:01:33-Nitriles and LiAlH4 and other Organometallic Reagents Required attribution: Nowick, James S. Organic Chemistry 51C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US).
Views: 48002 UCI Open
Organic Chemistry 51C. Lecture 12. The Aldol Reaction and the Michael Reaction.
 
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UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 12. Organic Chemistry -- The Aldol Reaction and theMichael Reaction -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem. http://learn.uci.edu/openchem Recorded on May 15, 2012 Index of Topics: 1:28-Enolate Formation 3:56-Aldol Reaction 11:44-Retrosynthesis Example 18:40-Original Aldol 21:32-Aldol Mechanism 26:45-Features of Aldol Mechanism 35:25-Aldol Example 38:21-Synthesis Example 43:16-Stereochemistry 46:46-Crossed Aldol Reaction 52:48-Intramolecular Aldol Reaction 1:01:10-Retrosynthesis of Intramolecular Aldol Reaction 1:03:16-The Michael Reaction 1:05:34-Resonance Structures 1:08:27-Strongly Basic Nucleophiles 1:12:52-Michael Reaction Mechanism 1:16:35-Retrosynthesis Example Required attribution: Nowick, James S. Organic Chemistry 51C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US).
Views: 24712 UCI Open
LiAlH4. Lithium aluminum hydride. Reactions
 
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Unique reactions lithium aluminum hydride with different substances. ==================== Reactions timing: 0:23 burning LiAlH4 0:30 burning LiAlH4 (macro) 1:25 decomposition LiAlH4 under a laser ray 1:35 decomposition LiAlH4 due to temperature 2:06 LiAlH4 and water (H2O) 2:33 LiAlH4 and nitric acid (HNO3) 2:50 LiAlH4 and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) 3:16 LiAlH4 and potassium nitrate (KNO3) 3:43 LiAlH4 and rubidium nitrate (RbNO3) 4:20 LiAlH4 and cesium nitrate (CsNO3) 4:52 LiAlH4 and lithium nitrate (LiNO3*2H20) 5:07 LiAlH4 and barium nitrate (Ba(NO3)2) 5:34 LiAlH4 and Iodine (I2)
Views: 2060 ChemicalForce
Ester Hydrolysis Reaction Mechanism - Acid Catalyzed & Base Promoted   Organic Chemistry
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides the mechanism of the ester hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by an acid or promoted under basic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the ester will be converted into a carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Under alkaline conditions, it will change to a carboxylate ion and an alcohol. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems.
Get Lithium Metal From an Energizer Battery
 
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We show you how to get Lithium Metal from an Energizer Ultimate Lithium battery. Warning: This should be done outside or in a fumehood due to the toxic gases that may be formed under certain conditions. Gloves must be worn as the chemicals and lithium are corrosive. There are a great many types of lithium batteries and the particular chemistry of interest is "lithium iron disulfide" batteries which contain pure lithium metal and less toxic electrolyte than other batteries. Lithium ion batteries do not contain lithium metal (just lithium ions) and other pure metal lithium batteries often contain incredibly toxic electrolyte that make them too dangerous for the average person to safely open. It just so happens that the popular Energizer Ultimate Lithium batteries are based on lithium iron disulfide chemistry making them the ideal choice for the home chemist to obtain lithium. The rolled lithium core is protected by a mini-fortress of steel that you have to cut through. The danger is accidentally shorting the battery and causing the internal materials to fuse. The video shows you what you have to go through and what to expect when opening an energizer ultimate lithium battery. Lithium is a powerful chemical reducing agent, it's also used for lithiation reactions in organic synthesis, batteries, unusual pyrotechnic formulations and some types of nuclear technologies. It's in the same category as the alkali metals which include the ever so popular sodium, potassium and cesium.
Views: 3102070 NurdRage
Grignard and Lithium Reaction with Amides, Esters and Acid Chlorides (Two Additions)
 
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DO NOT FORGET TO SUBSCRIBE! This video puts emphasis on the reaction with Grignard and Lithium reagents with Amides, Esters and Acid Chlorides.
Views: 14 Kevan Science
Making and Playing with Lithium Peroxide
 
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Hey guys, today we make some lithium peroxide using lithium hydroxide from a previous video. Lithium hydroxide: https://youtu.be/9c4BjVIgK1k Patent Procedure: https://www.google.com/patents/US3446588 Assistant Editor: Chanel Brun-Soroka Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/user?u=2448989&ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Nile-Red-1648800202046876/
Views: 121800 NileRed
Mixed (crossed) aldol condensation using a lithium enolate | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How to direct a mixed aldol condensation using a lithium enolate. Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/aldol-condensation-jay/v/retro-aldol-and-retrosynthesis?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/aldol-condensation-jay/v/mixed-crossed-aldol-condensation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Chapter 19 – Enolate Reactions: Part 1 of 3
 
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In this video I'll teach you why alpha-hydrogens are so acidic, and how we can use that property to do some cool organic reactions. I'll talk about keto-enol tautomerism, LDA (lithium diisopropyl amine), alpha-halogenation, alkylation, acylation, beta-alkylation, the aldol reaction, the Claisen condensation, the Robinson annulation, decarboxylation, and the malonic ester synthesis. --Dr. Mike Christiansen from Utah State University
Views: 14386 Mike Christiansen
Grignard Reaction
 
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Don't get your Grignard wet! It's like a Mogwai. Do you want Grignard Gremlins running around? I didn't think so. Check this out so you know what's up with Grignards. Subscribe: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveSubscribe ProfessorDaveExplains@gmail.com http://patreon.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://facebook.com/ProfessorDaveExplains http://twitter.com/DaveExplains http://instagram.com/DaveExplains General Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveGenChem Organic Chemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveOrgChem Biochemistry Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBiochem Classical Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics1 Modern Physics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDavePhysics2 Mathematics Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveMaths Biology Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveBio American History Tutorials: http://bit.ly/ProfDaveAmericanHistory
Preparation of alcohols using LiAlH4 | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How to prepare a primary or secondary alcohol from an aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, or ester using lithium aluminum hydride. Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alcohols-ethers-epoxides-sulfides/synthesis-alcohols-tutorial/v/synthesis-of-alcohols-using-grignard-reagents-i?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/alcohols-ethers-epoxides-sulfides/synthesis-alcohols-tutorial/v/preparation-of-alcohols-using-nabh4?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Organic Chemistry 2 Final Exam Test Review - Reagents & Reaction Mechanisms
 
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This video provides a review of organic chemistry 2 in preparation for upcoming semester final exam. This video focuses mostly on reactions and how to identify the major product in addition to a few mechanisms as well. Here's the rest of the video: https://vimeo.com/ondemand/orgochem2examreview Here is a list of topics included in this video: 1. Acid catalyzed Hydration of Alkenes – H3O+ 2. Hydroboration Oxidation – BH3 THF H2O2 NaOH or OH- 3. Oxymercuration Demercuration – Hg(OAc)2, H2O, NaBH4 4. Ozonolysis – O3 with (CH3)2S 5. Hydrogenation of Alkynes Using H2 & Pt 6. Alkynes to trans alkene using Na and NH3 7. Alkyl Halides with H2O, CH3OH, NaOH and T-buoK / T-buOh 8. Radical Bromination of Alkanes & Alkenes – NBS & Br2 / hv 9. Alcohols With HBr, PBr3, SOCl2, & TsCl 10. Oxidation of primary, secondary, and tertiary alcohols Using PCC, Na2Cr2O7 With H2SO4 or H2CrO4 11. Reduction of Aldehydes & Ketones Using NaBH4 & H2 With Raney Ni 12. Reduction of Esters and Carboxylic Acids Using LiAlH4 13. Reduction of Acid Chlorides Using Grignard Reagents and Organolithium Reagents like CH3MgBr or CH3Li 14. Reduction Using DiBAH and Gilman Reagent (CH3)2CuLi – Organo copper lithium reagent 15. Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions Between Alkyl halides Using Mg or Li 16. Acid Catalyzed Dehydration of Alcohols Using H3PO4 and H2SO4 17. Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Benzene Reactions – Nitration – HNO3 / H2SO4 18. Bromination – Br2 / FeBr3, Chlorination – Cl2 / FeCl3, Sulfonation – SO3 / H2SO4 19. Ortho para directing activators vs meta directing deactivators 20. Fridel Crafts Alkylation & Acylation – CH3Cl / AlCl3 & CH3COCl 21. Clemmensen Reduction Zn(Hg) / HCl and Wolff Kishner Reduction – N2H4 or H2N-NH2 / KOH 22. Benzene Side Chain Reactions – Oxidation with KmnO4 and H3O+ 23. Nitrobenzene to Aniline Using Fe or Sn / HCl to Arenediazonium salt using NaNO2 / HCl or HNO2 / HONO 24. Sandmeyer Reaction Using CuBr, CuCl,CuCN, H3PO2, HBF4, or Cu2O / H3O+ 25. Williamson Ether Synthesis Using Phenol, NaOH, and CH3Br 26. Pinacol Rearrangement and bimolecular dehydration of alcohols into ethers 27. Bromobenzene to aniline using NaNH2 – benzyne intermediate 28. p-bromonitrobenzene to p-nitrophenol using NaOH – nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction via meisenheimer complex 29. 1,3-butadiene with Br2, HBr, and BrCl – Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Product 30. Diels Alder Reaction – 4 + 2 cycloaddition – endo vs exo product – cis & trans 31. Diene & Dienophile Reactivity – s-cis vs s-trans – electron donating & withdrawing groups 32. Acid catalyzed cleavage of ethers using HI or excess HBr 33. Epoxide Ring Opening Using Acidic Conditions – H3O+ or CH3OH / H+ 34. Base Catalyzed Ring Opening of Epoxides Using CH3O- - less substituted carbon 35. Enolate Ion – Kinetic Product using LDA at low temperature vs Thermodynamic Product using NaH 36. Ketone to Imine Using primary Amines or to Enamine Using Secondary Amines 37. Direct Alkylation of Ketones Using Stork Enamine Reaction With CH3I 38. Alpha Hydrogen Substitution of Ketones Using Br2 and OH- 39. Haloform Reaction Using Excess I2 / KOH – Positive Iodoform Test – Yellow Precipitate 40. HVZ Reaction – Hell Volhard Zelinsky – PBr3, Br2 / H+, and H2O With a Carboxylic Acid 41. Wittig Reaction of Ketones to Alkenes Using PPh3, BuLi or Butyl lithium with ethyl iodide CH3CH2I 42. Nitrile With Grignard Reagent to Imine to Ketone 43. Acetal Protecting Groups Using ethylene glycol – HOCH2CH2Oh 44. Cyanohydrin formation of acetone using HCN 45. Primary Amines from alkyl halides, NH3, NaN3 azide, and Gabriel synthesis plus reductive amination 46. Carboxylic acid Derivatives, Acid Chlorides, Anhydrides, Esters, & Amides, Using Alcohols & Amines 47. Amide to Nitrile Using POCl3 48. Aldol Condensation Reaction Followed By Dehydration to Form Alpha Beta Unsaturated Aldehyde 49. Claisen Ester Condensation Reaction To Form Beta Keto Ester 50. Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis Reaction Using NaOCH2CH3 to form a Substituted Ketone 51. Malonic Ester Synthesis Reaction To Form Substituted Carboxylic Acid 52. Michael Addition Reaction Using a Michael Donor and Acceptor 53. Robinson Annulation Reaction Using Intramolecular Aldol Reaction 54. Dieckmann Condensation Reaction 55. Acidity / Pka of Carboxylic Acids, Alcohols, Phenols, Diketones, Acetoacetic ester, aldehydes, ketones, and aromatic heterocyclic compounds.
LiAlH4 vs NaBH4 Carbonyl Reactions and Selective Reduction
 
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Leah4sci.com/redox presents: LiAlH4 vs NaBH4 - a comparison of reduction reactions using Lithium Aluminum Hydride vs Sodium Borohydride for carbonyl reduction reactions Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video compares the 2 common carbonyl reducing agents LiAlH4 vs NaBH4 so that you can clearly understand how they are similar and WHY they differ. This is video 8 in the Organic Chemistry Oxidation/Reduction video series. Catch the entire series along with my redox practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website: http://leah4sci.com/redox For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 19241 Leah4sci
lithium aluminium hydride reduction in organic chemistry reagent
 
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in this tutorial in organic chemistry ketone convert into alcohol. what is chemo selective reduction, stero selective reduction of cyclic and bicyclic compound bio transformation of carbonyl compound also shown reducing agent LAH reduce epoxide very selectively dehalogenation endo and exo selectivity can also observed anh model explain asymmetric synthesis of alchols.
Views: 2894 Ocean of knowledge
Michael Addition Reaction Mechanism With Examples, Organic Chemistry
 
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This video provides the mechanism of the michael addition reaction with plenty of examples and problems. The michael acceptor and donor combine to form a 1,5 dicarbonyl compound. This video also includes a few retrosynthesis problems where you find the michael acceptor and donor if given the 1,5 dicarbonyl product. In this video, both the alpha and gamma hydrogen are considered.
Organic Chemistry Synthesis Reactions - Examples and Practice Problems - Retrosynthesis
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial focuses on multistep synthesis reactions and retrosynthesis problems. It contains plenty of tips, techniques, examples and practice problems for you to work on. Here is a list of topics included in this video: 1. Alkyne Synthesis Reactions Using Acetylene 2. Alkynes into Cis and Trans Alkenes 3. Retrosynthesis Reactions With Grignard Reagents 4. Alcohol Synthesis Using Grignard and Organolithium Reagents 5. Ketones and Aldehydes Into Alcohols 6. Synthesis of Ketones From Esters Using The Gilman Reagent 7. Synthesis of Aldehydes From Acid Chlorides Using DIBAH 8. Coupling Alkyl Halides Together Using Organo Copper lithium Reagents - R2CuLi 9. Formation of the Gilman and Grignard Reagent From an Alkyl Halide 10. Alkene Synthesis Reactions From Alkanes 11. Synthesis of Alcohols and Ethers from Alkanes 12. Oxymercuration Demercuration Reaction 13. Hydroboration Oxidation Reaction 14. Alkenes From Alkyl Halides Using The E2 Elimination Reaction 15. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols Into Aldehydes Using PCC 16. Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols Into Ketones Using H2CrO4 or the Jones Reagent 17. Formation of Cycloalkanes From Alkanes Using The Diels Alder Reaction 18. Reductive Amination: Conversion of Ketones to Imines Followed by Reduction to Primary Amines 19. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols Into Carboxylic Acids Using H2CrO4 20. Conversion of Carboxyl Group into Acid Chlorides Followed By Esters, Amides, and Anhydrides 21. Alkyne Synthesis From Alkenes Using The Halogenation Reaction Followed By E2 Elimination Using NaNH2 22. Formation of Alkenes From Ketones Using The Wittig Reaction 23. Synthesis of Benzene From Cyclohexane Using NBS and NaOH
Enolate formation from ketones | Alpha Carbon Chemistry | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Forming enolates from ketones using LDA and sodium ethoxide. Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/formation-of-enolate-anions/v/kinetic-and-thermodynamic-enolates?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/formation-of-enolate-anions/v/enolate-formation-from-aldehydes?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Retro-aldol and retrosynthesis | Alpha Carbon Chemistry | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How to think about the aldol condensation using retrosynthesis. Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/aldol-condensation-jay/v/intramolecular-aldol-condensation?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/ochem-alpha-carbon-chemistry/aldol-condensation-jay/v/mixed-crossed-aldol-condensation-using-a-lithium-enolate?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Carbonyl Reactions Exam Review - Alkylation, LDA, Enolate Ion, Stork Enamine,
 
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This video tutorial provides a test / exam review on carbonyl reactions associated with enols and enolate ions. Here's the link for the 2nd Part of This 5 Hour Video Tutorial: https://vimeo.com/ondemand/carbonylcompounds Topics Include: 1. Acid and Base Catalyzed Keto Enol Tautomerization 2. PKa of Carbonyl Compounds - Aldehyde, Ketone, Ester, Amide 3. Carbanion & Enolate Resonance Structures - Major Resonance Contributor 4. Enol Stability - Conjugation, Aromaticity, & Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding 5. Direct Alkylation of Aldehydes & Ketones Using LDA and an Alkyl Halide - CH3Br 6. Alpha Substitution Reactions - Bromination & HVZ Reaction - Hell Volhard Zelinsky Reaction 7. Base Catalyzed Alpha Hydrogen Substitution - Haloform Reaction For Methyl Ketones - I2 & NaOH or OH- 8. Direct 1,2 Addition vs 1,4 Conjugate Addition - Gilman vs Grignard Reagent 9. Alpha and Beta Hydrogen Substitution With Electrophiles & Nucleophiles 10. Stork Enamine Reaction - Alkylation & Acylation 10. Aldol Addition Reaction Using Acetaldehyde & NaOH 11. Aldol Condensation Reaction Followed By Dehydration Using the E1CB Elimination Reaction 12. Crossed & Mixed Aldol Reaction Plus RetroAldol Reaction Mechanism 13. Cyclic Intramolecular Aldol Reaction 14. Claisen Ester Condensation & Intramolecular Dieckmann Reaction - Appropriate Choice of Base - NaOEt vs NaOH vs NaOMe 15. Malonic Ester Synthesis Reaction - Direct Alkylation, Acid Catalyzed Hydrolysis & Decarboxylation - Alpha Substituted Carboxylic Acids 17. Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis Reaction - Alpha Substituted Ketones 18. Michael Reaction Mechanism - Donor vs Acceptor - Formation of 1,5 Dicarbonyl Compounds 19. Robinson Annulation Reaction Mechanism - Formation of Cyclic 6 membered Rings & alpha beta unsaturated ketones
Intro to Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry
 
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Leah4sci.com/redox presents: Oxidation and Reduction reactions in organic chemistry video 1 - Introduction to redox concepts, samples reactions, and tricks for recognizing redox reagents. Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This is video 1 in the Organic Chemistry Oxidation/Reduction video series. Catch the entire series along with my redox practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website: http://leah4sci.com/redox For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 38736 Leah4sci
Reduction of carboxylic acids | Carboxylic acids and derivatives | Organic chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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How to reduce carboxylic acids using lithium aluminum hydride (and borane). Created by Jay. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/carboxylic-acids-derivatives/reactions-carboxylic-jay/v/preparation-of-acyl-acid-chlorides?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/organic-chemistry/carboxylic-acids-derivatives/reactions-carboxylic-jay/v/carboxylic-acid-nomenclature-and-properties?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=organicchemistry Organic Chemistry on Khan Academy: Carbon can form covalent bonds with itself and other elements to create a mind-boggling array of structures. In organic chemistry, we will learn about the reactions chemists use to synthesize crazy carbon based structures, as well as the analytical methods to characterize them. We will also think about how those reactions are occurring on a molecular level with reaction mechanisms. Simply put, organic chemistry is like building with molecular Legos. Let's make some beautiful organic molecules! About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Organic Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCNKPjijOc0WEJ7DIV_Vay3g?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Organic Chemistry 51C. Lecture 03. Reactions of Organometallic Reagents.
 
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UCI Chem 51C Organic Chemistry (Spring 2012) Lec 03. Organic Chemistry -- Reactions of Organometallic Reagents -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html Instructor: James S. Nowick, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: This is the third quarter course in the organic chemistry series. Topics covered include: Fundamental concepts relating to carbon compounds with emphasis on structural theory and the nature of chemical bonding, stereochemistry, reaction mechanisms, and spectroscopic, physical, and chemical properties of the principal classes of carbon compounds. Organic Chemistry 51C is part of OpenChem. http://ocw.uci.edu/collections/open_chemistry.html Recorded on April 12, 2012 Index of Topics: -1:36 Ketone/Aldehyde Reduction -5:56 Grignard Reagents -12:31 Polarity of Grignard Reagent -16:01 Basicity of Grignard Reagent -19:22 Grignard Reagents and Water/Alcohol -21:32 Organolithium Reagent -25:50 Acetylide Anions -34:07 Making Acetylide Anion -38:29 Reactivity of the Carboxylic Acid Family -44:56 Addition-Elimination Reaction -48:12 Examples of Carboxylic Acid Reduction -53:29 Multiple Additions onto Carboxylic Acids -59:50 Leaving Groups -1:08:27 Synthesizing Example -1:16:54 More Examples of Synthesizing Required attribution: Nowick, James S. Organic Chemistry 51C (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/chem_51c_organic_chemistry.html [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/us/deed.en_US).
Views: 59637 UCI Open
Aldehydes and Ketones - Carbonyl Organic Chemistry Reactions Practice Test / Exam Review
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides an overview of nucleophilic addition reactions of aldehydes and ketones. It provides a nice review of what you need for your next organic chemistry test or exam. Here's a list of topics contained in this video: 1. Nomenclature - Naming Compounds Containing Aldehyde and Ketone Functional Groups. Common names such as Benzaldehyde, Acetone, Acetophenone, Cyclohexane Carbaldehyde, and Benzophenone are included. 2. Physical Properties of Aldehydes & Ketones Including Boiling Point, Vapor Pressure, and Water Solubility 3. Hydration Reaction of Aldehydes & Ketones - Forming Hydrates -Mechanism included. 4. Relative Reactivity of Aldehydes & Ketones - Most Reactive to Least Reactive or Least Stable to Most Stable 5. Steric Factors Such as Steric Hindrance vs Electronic Factors Such Electron Donating Groups and Electron Withdrawing Groups. 6. Enol-Ketone Tautomerism - Reaction Mechanism of a Ketone into an Enol - Acidic and Basic Conditions. 7. The Stability of Conjugated and Aromatic Enols. 8. Acetal, Ketal, Hemiacetal, and Hemiketal Formation. 9. Acetal Protecting Groups Using Ethylene Glycol - Reaction Mechanism 10. Grignard Reagent Reaction Mechanism With Aldehydes & Ketones 11. Aldehydes & Ketones Nucleophilic Addition - NaBH4 & LiAlH4 Reduction Reactions 12. Cyanohydrin Formation - Reaction Mechanism - Acidic & Basic Conditions 13. Primary Alcohol to Aldehyde Using PCC Reaction Overview 14. Secondary Alcohol to Ketone Using Na2Cr2O7 & H2SO4 15. Terminal Alkyne to Aldehyde Using Sia2BH THF H2O2 NaOH 16. Terminal Alkyne to Ketone Using HgSO4, H2SO4, and H2O 17. Conversion of Nitrile to Imine to Ketone Reaction Mechanism 18. Organolithium Reagents With Carbonyl Compounds 19. Imine vs Enamine - Primary vs Secondary Amines on Ketones 20. Ozonolysis - Converting Alkenes Into Aldehydes & Ketones 21. Fridel Crafts Acylation - Adding a Ketone Near a Benzene Ring 22. The Wittig Reaction and It's mechanism - Ylide, TriphenylPhosphine, Oxaphosphetane, Betain, Butyl Lithium, etc. 23. Tollen's Test - Ag(NH3)2+ or Ag2O with THF and H2O 24. Clemmensen Reduction - Zn, Hg, and HCl - Converting a Ketone into an Alkane 25. Wolff - Kishner Reduction Using KOH and H2N-NH2 or N2H4 / Hydrazine 26. Direct Alkylation or alpha hydrogen substitution reactions of aldehydes and ketones with an alkyl halide like CH3Br or CH3CH2Br 27. Direct Alkylation Using an Enamine
Nickel-cadmium battery | Redox reactions and electrochemistry | Chemistry | Khan Academy
 
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Balancing the redox reaction (in base) that occurs in a nickel-cadmium battery. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/oxidation-reduction/cell-potential/v/standard-reduction-potentials?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/chemistry/oxidation-reduction/batter-galvanic-voltaic-cell/v/lead-storage-battery?utm_source=YT&utm_medium=Desc&utm_campaign=chemistry Chemistry on Khan Academy: Did you know that everything is made out of chemicals? Chemistry is the study of matter: its composition, properties, and reactivity. This material roughly covers a first-year high school or college course, and a good understanding of algebra is helpful. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLearnAnything Subscribe to Khan Academy’s Chemistry channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCyEot66LrwWFEMONvrIBh3A?sub_confirmation=1 Subscribe to Khan Academy: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=khanacademy
Organic reaction #11 reduction of carbonyl groups
 
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Ketones are reduced to secondary alcohols, aldehydes are reduced to primary alcohols. Sodium borohydride or lithium aluminum hydride can be used NaBH4 or LiAlH4. Carboxylic acids are reduced to primary alcohols through an aldehyde intermediate. Find more organic reaction mechanisms, problems and resources here https://sites.google.com/site/thechemistrytranslator/chemistry---milam-plymouth/ib-chem-milam-hl
Views: 588 Scott Milam
Reaction Work-Up I | MIT Digital Lab Techniques Manual
 
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Reaction Work-Up I Extracting, Washing and Drying: It aint over til its over. Learn how to "work up" your reaction using a separatory funnel to perform a liquid-liquid extraction. This is one purification technique you dont want to miss! Created by Dr. Sarah Tabacco and Aaeyesha Siddiqui View the complete resource at: http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/resources/RES-5-0001Spring-2007/ResourceHome License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at http://ocw.mit.edu/terms More courses at http://ocw.mit.edu WARNING NOTICE: The experiments described in these materials are potentially hazardous and require a high level of safety training, special facilities and equipment, and supervision by appropriate individuals. You bear the sole responsibility, liability, and risk for the implementation of such safety procedures and measures. MIT shall have no responsibility, liability, or risk for the content or implementation of any of the material presented. Legal Notice - http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/terms/terms/index.htm
Views: 22976 MIT OpenCourseWare
DAT Organic Chemistry Study Guide Exam Course Review Prep
 
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This DAT prep video tutorial provides a review of organic chemistry for those taking the dental admissions exam. It provides plenty of notes, examples, and practice questions with reaction mechanisms to help you learn the most important topics in organic chemistry. You should definitely incorporate flashcards to help you memorize some important reactions. Here is a list of topics: 1. Hybridization – s, sp, sp2, sp3, Molecular Geometry, and Bond Angle 2. Functional Groups – Ketones, Aldehydes, Ethers, Esters, Nitriles & Amides 3. Formal Charge, Resonance Structures, Boiling Point, & Water Solubility 4. Carbocation, Carbanion, Radical, and Alkene Stability 5. Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Hydrogen & Carbon atoms, Amines, & Alcohols 6. Acidity & Pka – Brownsted Lowry & Lewis Acids & Bases – Acid Strength 7. Newman Projections, Chair Conformations, Cycloalkanes & Fischer Projections 8. Radical Bromination and Monochlorination Reactions 9. Chiral Carbon Atoms, Stereocenters, Stereoisomers, R & S Absolute Configuration 10. Stereochemistry – Enantiomers, Meso Compounds, Diastereomers and Constitutional Isomers 11. Optical Purity, Enantiomeric Excess, & Observed Rotation 12. Electrophilic Addition Reactions of Alkenes – Hydration & Hydrohalogenation Mechanism 13. Hydroboration Oxidation and Oxymercuration Demercuration Reaction of Alkenes 14. Syn Hydroxylation, Ozonolysis, Carbene Reactions, Hydrogenation, & Epoxidation 15. Hydrogenation of Alkynes Into Alkanes and Cis / Trans Alkenes - Lindlar’s Catalysts vs Na & NH3 16. Alkyne Synthesis Reactions Using Acetylene and NaNH2 17. SN2, SN1, E1, E2 Reaction Mechanism Chart – Polar Protic vs Aprotic Solvents 18. Leaving Groups, Nucleophile Strength, Steric Hindrance, Bulky Bases 19. SN2 Inversion of Stereochemistry vs SN1 Racemic Mixture & Anti E2 Elimination 20. Zaitsev vs Hoffman Product – E2 Reaction 21. Reactions of Alcohols – HBr, PBr3, SOCl2, H2SO4, H3PO4, PCC, H2CrO4, KMnO4, Na2Cr2O7 22. Acid Catalyzed E1 & E2 Dehydration Reactions of Alcohols 23. Hydride Shift, Methy Shift, and Ring Expansion Carbocation Rearrangements 24. Williamson Ether Synthesis Reactions and Bimolecular Dehydration Reaction of Alcohols 25. Acid Catalyzed Cleavage of Ethers With HBr and HI 26. Acid and Base Catalyzed Cleavage of Epoxides With CH3O- and CH3OH / H+ 27. Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols 28. Reduction of Aldehydes & Ketones With NaBH4, LiAlH4, 29. Grignard, Gilman, DiBAH, and Organic Lithium Reagents – Synthesis Practice Questions Included 30. HIO4 Periodic Acid Cleavage of 1,2 Diols 31. 1,3-Butadiene Reactions With Br2, Cl2, and HBr – 1,2 vs 1,4-Addition – Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Products. 32. Diels Alder Reaction – Diene vs Dienophile – Endo vs Exo Product – S-Trans vs S-Cis Conformation 33. UV/Vis Spectroscopy – Conjugated Alkenes, 200-400nm Wavelength 34. Aromatic, Antiaromatic, vs Nonaromatic Compounds – Huckel’s Rule – 4n+2 35. Nomenclature – Benzene Derivatives – Aniline, Anisole, Toluene, Xylene, Styrene, Napthalene 36. Electrophilic and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Mechanism 37. Nitration, Sulfonation, Friedel Crafts Alkylation & Acylation, Bromination & Chlorination 38. Benzene Reactions – HNO3, H2SO4, CH3Cl / AlCl3, Br2 / FeBr3, SO3 / H2SO4 39. Arenediazonium Salts – NaNO2 / HCl or HNO2 – Sandmeyer Reaction – CuCl, CuBr, CuCN 40. Enolate Ions, LDA, Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Product 41. Alpha Hydrogen Substitution Reactions – Br2, OH-, 42. Acetal Formation, Imine, Enamine, Wittig Reaction, Stork Reaction, and Enol Keto Tautomers 43. Reactions of Amines, Gabriel Synthesis, Nitrile Reduction, Reductive Amination 44. Hoffman and Curtius Rearrangement, Cope & Hoffman Elimination & HVZ Reaction 45. Carboxylic Acid Derivatives – Acid Chlorides, Esters, Anhydrides, and Amides 46. Aldol Reaction, Claisen Condensation, Acetoacetic and Malonic Ester Synthesis Reaction 47. Michael Addition, Intramolecular Aldol, Robinson Annulation, and Dieckmann Reaction 48. H-NMR, C-NMR, MS, and IR Spectroscopy 49. How To Determine The Number of Signals In a H-NMR Spectrum 50. Tollen’s Test, Iodoform Test, 2,4-DNP, Bromine Water, Chromic Acid and Lucas Reagent Test
Superbase
 
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Superbases are chemical compounds more basic than hydroxides, and are created when very weak acids react to form conjugate bases. Superacid: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fPd8EPM0uJI&feature=youtu.be Sources: http://h2g2.com/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A708257 http://chemweb.unp.ac.za/chemistry/Physical_Data/pKa_values.htm http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2011/10/29/reagent-friday-kotbu/ http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2011/08/05/reagent-friday-lithium-di-isopropyl-amide-lda/?_ga=1.43284320.457171085.1408569724 Bartmess, J. E.; Scott, J. A.; McIver, R. T. (1979). J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101:6046. http://www.masterorganicchemistry.com/2012/05/21/acid-base-reactions-are-fast/ http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja00476a054 http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/?title=Organic_Chemistry/Aldehydes_and_Ketones/Synthesis_of_Aldehydes_%26_Ketones/Grignard_and_Organolithium_Reagents
Nitrile to Carboxylic Acid Reaction Mechanism: RCN to RCOOH Using H3O+
 
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This video discusses the reaction mechanism for the conversion of a nitrile to a carboxylic acid using H3O+. RCN to RCOOH.
Reduction of Ketones and Aldehdyes Made Easy! - Organic Chemistry
 
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Tired of reacting with Aldehydes and Ketones? Do you want to bring them down to alcohols so that you can do easier reactions with them? If so, then it sounds like you guys need to use some reducing agents! Practice your reducing skills in this video lesson where I challenge you guys to choose the correct reducing agent and predict what your product will be when you reduce aldehydes and ketones. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ●●● A HUGE special thanks to all my Patrons on Patreon for helping support this channel and keeping all these videos free! Special shout outs to: 1). Karen Hung (Staten Island, NY - Boston University Class of 2014 - Alum) 2). Professor Chip Celenza (Boston, MA - Boston University - Biology / Genetics Professor) 3). Safiya Nur (Silver Springs, MD - Former Montgomery College/UMaryland College Park Student | Current Orgo Made Easy Tutor!) 4). Ang Gao for being the bored student having a really bad day. :D ●●● Interested in joining them and helping support these videos? Check out ------------}(https://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy) you can help by pitching in as little as 1$ a month! Thank you again even just for watching! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ●LiAlH4 Reaction Map: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/LAH_rxns.png ● Bloopers: http://youtu.be/bYf6w1-e54Q ● NaBH4 Sodium Borohydride versus LiAlH4 Lithium Aluminum Hydride: http://youtu.be/5MboymSRLn4 ● Wolf-Kishner Reduction Made Easy!: Coming Soon ● The Wittig Reaction Made Easy: http://goo.gl/eXiqQt ● Hemiacetals, Ketals, Acetals Series: http://goo.gl/n0fdqy ● Imines and Enamines Made Easy: http://goo.gl/cK4ja3 ● Concepts covered/related: Hydrogenation with Patinum / Palladium / Nickel | Carbonyl Chemistry | Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds | Wolff Kishner Reduction with Hydrazine | Clemmenson Reduction | Lithium Aluminium Hydride | Sodium Borohydride | DIBAL-H | LiAl(OTBU)3H | Hydrides ●Private Tutoring Information: I offer in-person private tutoring in Boston and NYC, and if you live elsewhere on this awesome planet I offer online Skype tutoring that is accompanied with a whiteboard program. For more info check here: http://orgomadeeasy.org/private-tutoring/ and contact me via my "Orgo Made Easy" Facebook page or email: OrgoMadeEasy@Gmail.com Make sure you share this with your friends if you found it helpful, and I would love it if you leave some comments to let me know if I'm on the right track ;). ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subscribe to get updated when I make new videos! https://www.youtube.com/user/OrgoMadeEasy/about?sub_confirmation=1 Connect with me on Facebook/Instagram/Twitter! Facebook-------------------------------https://Facebook.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/OrgoMadeEasy Instagram-------------------------------http://Instagram.com/FrankMWong Official Website-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/ Help Support Me Here--------------http://www.Patreon.com/OrgoMadeEasy Private Tutoring-----------------------http://OrgoMadeEasy.org/private-tutoring/ Tweet Tweet---------------------------https://Twitter.com/OrgoMadeEasy
Views: 31380 Frank Wong
Reduction with NaBH4 or LiAlH4
 
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Borohydride has nucleophilic hydrogen that will lead to reduction of ketones and aldehydes. Lithium aluminum hydride can reduce those as well as carboxylic acids. More organic chemistry help and IB chemistry HL help can be found here: https://sites.google.com/site/thechemistrytranslator/chemistry---milam-plymouth/ib-chem-milam-hl
Views: 1481 Scott Milam
Alkyne Reactions Products and Shortcuts
 
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http://leah4sci.com/AlkyneReactions presents: 11 Alkyne Reactions in 11 Minutes. Overview of Organic Chemistry 1 Alkyne reactions and product shortcuts to help you work through them quickly! Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ Referenced in this video: Keto Enol Tautomerization https://youtu.be/TJrTytxucus Download and follow along with the Alkyne Reactions cheat sheet: http://leah4sci.com/alkynereactions For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
Views: 98345 Leah4sci
Claisen Condensation Reaction Mechanism - Organic Chemistry
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides the mechanism of the claisen condensation reaction of two identical esters to form a beta keto ester followed by hydrolysis and decarboxylation to produce a ketone. It also provides a few retrosynthesis examples.
Organic Chemistry 2 Introduction  Basic Overview / Review - Reaction Mechanism
 
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This organic chemistry 2 video tutorial provides a basic introduction or online overview of a few topics that you will learn in your 2nd second semester of organic chemistry. This video lecture contains plenty of examples and practice problems for you to learn from including reaction mechanisms. Here is a list of topics covered in this video: 1. Alcohol Reactions with HBr- SN2 and SN1 Reaction Mechanism 2. Alcohol to Alkyl Halide Using PBr3 and SOCl2 3. Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones Using NaBH4 and LiAlH4 4. Reduction of Esters and Ketones Using Grignard Reagents (CH3MgBr) and Organolithium Reagents (CH3Li) 5. Formation of Ketones From Acid Chlorides Using The Gilman Reagent or Organo Copper Lithium Reagent (CH3)2CuLi 6. Acid Chloride to Aldehyde Using DIBAH or DIBAL-H 7. Alcohol Dehydration Reaction - Acid Catalyzed E1 Reaction Mechanism - Formation of Alkenes 8. Oxidation of Primary and Secondary Alcohols Using PCC and H2CrO4 to Form Aldehydes, Carboxylic Acids and Ketones 9. 1,3-Butadiene Reactions With Br2 - 1,2-addition vs 1,4-addition. Kinetic vs Thermodynamic Control 10. Diels Alder Reaction - Diene vs Dienophile - 4+2 Cycloaddition Reaction. Formation of Bridge Bicyclic Compounds 11. Benzene Reactions - Bromination, Nitration, Sulfonation, Iodination, Friedel Crafts Alkylation and Acylation Plus Side Chain Oxidation With KMnO4 and H3O+ - Aromatic Compounds 12. Electrophilic vs Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions 13. Ortho Para vs Meta Directors 14. Activators vs Deactivators - Electron Donating vs Electron Withdrawing Groups 15. Williamson Ether Synthesis Reaction 16. Cleavage of Ethers Using HBr 17. Reactions of Epoxides with CH3OH Under Acidic and Basic Conditions 18. Direct Alkylation of Ketones Using LDA and CH3Br 19. Alpha Hydrogen Substitution Reactions 20. Benzyne Intermediate vs Meisenheimer Complex 21. Enol Ketone Tautomerization Reaction Mechanism - Acidic and Basic Conditions 22. Ketone + Excess Br2 - Alpha Hydrogen Substitution 23. Haloform Reaction - Methyl Ketone + Excess I2 with NaOH or KOh 24. Imine and Enamine Reactions - Ketone with Primary and Secondary Amines 25. Stork Reaction - Direct Alkylation using 2nd Amine 26. Hydrolysis of an Iminium Cation Using H3O+ 27. Wittig Reaction Overview - Ketone to Alkene Using Ylide 28. Aldol Condensation Reaction Mechanism - Hydroxide Base Catalyst 29. Claisen Ester Condensation Reaction Mechanism\
Reactions of anhydrides with hydrogen and carbon nucleophiles
 
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Dr. Norris discusses the reduction of anhydrides with lithium aluminum hydride and lithium trialkoxy aluminum hydride. He also discusses the reactions of anhydrides with Grignard reagents and Gilman reagents. These reactions are often not productive on mixed anhydrides.
Carbocations and Carbanions | General Organic Chemistry | Explained by IITian | Jee Mains & Advance
 
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Carbocations and Carbanions are some of the most important topics in General Organic Chemistry for Jee Mains & Advance. Carbocations:- Carbocations are the key intermediates in several reactions and particularly in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Structure of Carbocations : Generally, in the carbocations the positively charged carbon atom is bonded to three other atoms and has no nonbonding electrons. It is sp2 hybridized with a planar structure and bond angles of about 120°. There is a vacant unhybridized p orbital which in the case of CH3+ lies perpendicular to the plane of C—H bonds. Stability of Carbocations: There is an increase in carbocation stability with additional alkyl substitution. Thus one finds that addition of HX to three typical olefins decreases in the order (CH3)2C=CH2 greater CH3—CH = CH2 greater CH2 = CH2. This is due to the relative stabilities of the carbocations formed in the rate determining step which in turn follows from the fact that the stability is increased by the electron releasing methyl group (+I), three such groups being more effective than two, and two more effective than one. Stability of carbocations 3°greater 2° greater 1° greater CH3+ Electron release : Disperses charge, stabilizes ion. Further, any structural feature which tends to reduce the electron deficiency at the tricoordinate carbon stabilizes the carbocation. Thus when the positive carbon is in conjugation with a double bond, the stability is more. This is so, because due to resonance the positive charge is spread over two atoms instead of being concentrated on only one. This explains the stability associated with the allylic cation. The benzylic cations are stable, since one can draw canonical forms as for allylic cations. The benzyl cation stability is affected by the presence of substituents on the ring. Electron donating p-methoxy and p-amino groups stabilize the carbocation by 14 and 26 kcal/mole, respectively. The electron withdrawing groups like p-nitro destabilize by 20 kcal/mol. A hetero atom with an unshared pair of electrons when present adjacent to the cationic centre strongly stabilizes the carbocation. The methoxymethyl cation has been obtained as a stable solid CH3O+CH2SbF6-. Cyclopropylmethyl cations are even more stable than the benzyl cations. This special stability is a result of conjugation between the bent orbitals of the cyclopropyl ring and the vacant p orbital of the cationic carbon. That the carbocations are planar is shown by the fact that these are difficult or impossible to form at bridgeheads, where they cannot be planar. The stability order of carbocation is explained by hyperconjugation. In vinyl cations (CH2 = C+H), resonance stability lacks completely and these therefore are very much less stable. Carbanions Structure of Carbanions: A carbanion possesses an unshared pair of electron and thus represents a base. The best likely description is that the central carbon atom is sp3 hybridized with the unshared pair occupying one apex of the tetrahedron. Carbanions would thus have pyramidal structures similar to those of amines. It is believed that carbanions undergo a rapid interconversion between two pyramidal forms. There is evidence for the sp3 nature of the central carbon and for its tetrahedral structure. At bridgehead a carbon does not undergo reactions in which it must be converted to a carbocation. However, the reactions which involve carbanions at such centres take place with ease, and stable bridgehead carbanions are known. In case this structure is correct and if all three R groups on a carbanions are different, the carbanion should be chiral. All reactions therefore, which involve the formation of chiral carbanion should give retention of configuration. However, this never happens and has been explained due to an umbrella effect as in amines. Thus the unshared pair and the central carbon rapidly oscillate from one side of the plane to the other. Stability and Generation of Carbanions: The Grignard reagent is the best known member of a broad class of substances, called organometallic compounds where carbon is bonded to a metal lithium, potassium sodium, zinc, mercury, lead, thallium – almost any metal known. Whatever the metal it is less electronegative than carbon, and the carbon metal bond like the one in the Grignard reagent highly polar. Although the organic group is not a full-fledged carbanion – an anion in which carbon carries negative charge, it however, has carbanion character. Or organometallic compounds can serve as a source from which carbon is readily transferred with its electrons. On treatment with a metal, in RX the direction of the original dipole moment is reversed (reverse polarization). We Hope, you all will enjoy the lecture. Thanks Team IITian Explains
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How to memorise Alkene Reactions, Reagents and Conditions - H2ChemHacks
 
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The easiest way to remember the reagents and conditions for all reactions of Alkenes in H2 Chemistry Syllabus. Watch this video tutorial now! Topic: Alkenes, Organic Chemistry, JC, H2, A Level Chemistry, Singapore Found this video useful? Please LIKE this video and SHARE it with your friends. SUBSCRIBE to my YouTube Channel for new A Level H2 Chemistry video lessons every week! Any feedback, comments or questions to clarify? Suggestions for new video lessons? Drop them in the COMMENTS Section, I would love to hear from you! Do you know you can learn Chemistry Concepts under a minute? Follow me on Instagram for my weekly one-minute video lessons at https://www.instagram.com/chemistryguru/ I am also conducting JC H2 Chemistry classes at Bishan Central, Singapore. With my years of experience tutoring hundreds of JC students since 2010, I am confident that I can make H2 Chemistry Simpler for you too! For more information please visit https://chemistryguru.com.sg/ -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch my latest video: "How to determine Acidic and Alkaline Buffer Solutions - Ionic Equilibria" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9pKBOULnL8g -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
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Aldol Addition and Condensation Reaction Mechanism in Acid or Base
 
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http://leah4sci.com/enolate presents: Aldol Addition and Condensation Reaction and Mechanism and Acidic and Basic Conditions Need help with orgo? Download my free guide '10 Secrets to Acing Organic Chemistry' HERE: http://leah4sci.com/orgo-ebook/ This video shows you how to perform an aldol addition or condensation reaction in acidic or basic conditions This is video 4 in the Enolate Reaction series. Catch the entire series along with the Enolate practice quiz and cheat sheet on my website: http://leah4sci.com/enolate For more in-depth review including practice problems and explanations, check out my online membership site: http://studyhall.leah4sci.com/join For private online tutoring visit my website: http://leah4sci.com/organic-chemistry-tutor/ Finally, for questions and comments, find me on social media here: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Leah4sci Twitter: https://twitter.com/Leah4Sci Google+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/+LeahFisch Pinterest: http://www.pinterest.com/leah4sci/
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Jones Reagent, H2CrO4 Oxidation of Alcohols Reaction Mechanism - Chromic Acid
 
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This organic chemistry video tutorial provides the reaction mechanism of the Jones Reagent which is used to oxidized primary alcohols into carboxylic acids and secondary alcohols into ketones. The jones reagent is composed of Chromium Trioxide CrO3, H2O, and H2SO4 (Sulfuric acid) which generates chromic acid H2CrO4. Oxidation of primary alcohols first generates an aldehyde which converts to the geminal / gem diol hydrate form which is then oxidized into a carboxylic acid. Tertiary alcohols are resistant to oxidation.