1. What medicines can be used to treat Migraine ?? 2.What are medicines which can be used to prevent Migraine attacks ?? 3. How to remember medicines for Migraine ??A migraine is a primary headache disordercharacterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe. Typically, the headaches affect one half of the head, are pulsating in nature, and last from two to 72 hours.Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity.Up to one-third of people have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur.Occasionally, an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.These drugs are taken at the onset of migraine symptoms or auras to relieve a headache or reduce its severity.
Taking any of these drugs too often can lead to a rebound headache, headaches that arise from overuse of medication, which then necessitate additional medication. If you need to use acute migraine drugs more than nine times per month, talk to your doctor about possible preventive treatments.
Some over-the-counter painkillers are commonly used for migraine, but many are only available in prescription strength. Aside from acetaminophen, an analgesic that only relieves pain, these drugs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which relieve pain and reduce inflammation:
acetaminophen (Excedrin, Tylenol)aspirindiclofenac (Cataflam)ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)ketorolac (Toradol)naproxen (Aleve)
Many over-the-counter drugs marketed specifically for migraine or headaches in general combine one or more of the drugs above with a small amount of caffeine, which can make them work more quickly and effectively, especially for mild migraine headaches.
Possible side effects of long-term NSAID use include:
heart attackstrokekidney damagestomach ulcers
Ergotamines were the first class of drugs used specifically for migraines. They cause blood vessels around your brain to contract and can relieve a migraine within a few minutes. Ergotamines are available as pills, tablets that dissolve under your tongue, nasal sprays, suppositories, and injections. They are generally taken at the first sign of headache symptoms, and some have the option to take additional doses every 30 minutes if the headache continues. Some ergotamines are:
dihydroergotamine (DHE-45, Migranal)ergotamine (Ergomar)ergotamine and caffeine (Cafatine, Cafergot, Cafetrate, Ercaf, Migergot, Wigraine)methysergide (Sansert)methylergonovine (Methergine)
Ergotamines can have dangerous side effects. They can cause birth defects and heart problems, and are toxic in high doses. If you are pregnant or breast-feeding or have heart disease, you should not take ergotamines. Ergotamines can also interact negatively with other drugs, including antifungal and antibiotic medications.
Triptans are a newer class of drug that increases serotonin levels in your brain, reducing inflammation and constricting blood vessels, effectively ending a migraine. Triptans are available as pills, nasal sprays, injections, and tablets that dissolve under your tongue, and work quickly to stop a migraine. Some triptans are:
almotriptan (Axert)eletriptan (Relpax)frovatriptan (Frova)naratriptan (Amerge)rizatriptan (Maxalt, Maxalt-MLT)sumatriptan (Imitrex)sumatriptan and naproxen (Treximet)zolmitriptan (Zomig)
Possible side effects of triptans include:
tingling or numbness in your toesdrowsinessdizzinessnauseatightness or discomfort in your chest or throat
People with heart problems or who are at risk for stroke should avoid triptans. Triptans can also cause the potentially fatal serotonin syndrome, if taken with other drugs that increases serotonin, such as antidepressants.
These drugs reduce nausea and vomiting that can accompany severe migraines. They are usually taken along with a painkiller, as they do not reduce pain:
dimenhydrinate (Gravol)metoclopramide (Reglan)prochlorperazine (Compazine)promethazine (Phenergan)trimethobenzamide (Tigan)
These drugs may make you drowsy, less alert, or dizzy, and have other possible side effects.
If migraine pain does not respond to other painkillers and you can’t take ergotamines or triptans, your doctor may prescribe opioids, much more powerful painkillers. Many migraine drugs are a combination of opioids and painkillers. Some opiods are:
codeinemeperidine (Demerol)morphineoxycodone (OxyContin)
Opioids carry a serious risk of addiction, so they are usually prescribed sparingly.
Drugs for preventive treatment
If you experience migraines frequently, your doctor may prescribe a preventive drug to reduce the frequency and intensity of migraines. These drugs are taken on a regular basis, usually daily, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other drugs. It may take several weeks or months.