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Lithium and Nephrotoxicity video
 
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Video of how lithium can cause nephrotoxicity
Views: 1976 spideogb
Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
 
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Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 18163 CanadaQBank
Treatment Of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Due To Lithium
 
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Views: 34 Diabetic recipes
Diabetes Insipidus for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2
 
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Handwritten video lecture on Pathogenesis, pathophysiology, signs, symptoms and treatment of Diabetes Insipidus for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2. Diabetes Insidipus is defined as low ADH which can be due to decrease production of ADH (central) or decrease response to ADH (Nephrogenic) PHYSIOLOGY OF ADH SECRETION High osmolality of the plasma activates osmoreceptors which causes production and release of ADH in hypothalamus. ADH is subsequently stored in posterior pituitary until release. ADH acts on the principal cells of the collecting ducts of the kidney. After entering the cell it activates release of aquaporin in the lumen side of the collecting ducts. This causes reabsorption of water due to high osmolality of the medulla. When the water is reabsorbed ADH leads to increase urine osmolality. CENTRAL DIABETES INSIPIDUS Decrease production of ADH by the Hypothalamus or pituitary leads to central diabetes insipidus. Neurosurgery - pituitary surgery Trauma - leads to Central Diabetes Insipidus leading to three stages, polyuria, SIADH phase and permanent diabetes insipidus Tumor, inparticular langerhan cell histiocytosis can cause diabetes insipidus and congenital syndrome such as supraoptic dysplasia. NEPHROGENIC DIABESTES INSIPIDUS May be caused by V2 receptor mutation which is X linked recessive. The most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is lithium. Lithium enters the cells via the ENaC and inhibits Aquaporin 2. Hypercalcemia and Hypokalemia can develop diabetes insipidus and is reversal. Drugs which are known to cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are foscarnet, cidofovir, amphotericin B. SIGNS and SYMPTOM of DIABETES INSIPIDUS The three primary symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus is polyuria, nocturia, polydipsia. Hypernatremia may develop but not usually because patient will drink enough water. Primarily seen in patients who have diabetes insipidus but no access to water such as infants, and elederly. TREATMENT for Diabetes Insipidus For Central Diabetes insipidus give desmopressin, and other ADH secreting drugs such as chlorpromaide, carbamazepine, clofibrate and NSAIDs. Also a low solute, low protein diet which prevent high urine osmolality. For nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is thiazide diuretics which causes volume depletion trigger an increase in reabsorption of sodium and water in PCT. Amiloride inhibits ENaC so it is primarily used if Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus is caused by lithium. Water restriction test is used to diagnose Diabetes insipidus. Water restriction is followed by monitoring the patient urine osmolality and ADH secretion.
Views: 13297 the study spot
Lithium Toxicity
 
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lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and chronic toxicity, the so called "SILENT Syndrome"
Views: 2776 Andrew Dawson
What Causes Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus 2014
 
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What Leads to Diabetes Insipidus By http://ezinearticles.com/?expert=Robert_S._Nelson Robert S. Nelson What causes diabetes insipidus (or DI) will depend on which variety of this disorder you have. Diabetes insipidus is definitely an uncommon health problem which arises when a person's kidneys simply cannot maintain water whenever they perform their function of filtering an individual's blood. The quantity of water typically is controlled by ADH, which is actually an antidiuretic hormone called vasopressin. The goal of vasopressin is to always manage the level of water that is in the body by controlling the amount of urine your kidneys make. If ever the level of water inside your system is low, your pituitary gland produces vasopressin in an effort to use less water and reduce the production of urine. However, for those who have DI, typically vasopressin is unable to properly control the body's water levels, which lets way too much urine to get produced and passed out from the body. In cases where a deficiency of vasopressin is the reason, it is called central diabetes insipidus. Conditions Leading to Central Diabetes Insipidus The most widespread causes are actually: Difficulties resulting from surgical procedures on the brain Substantial head trauma that may damage the pituitary gland or perhaps your hypothalamus A tumor in your brain that can cause harm to your pituitary gland or possibly your hypothalamus In close to thirty-three percent of cases, no straightforward explanation can be figured out as being the source for this disorder. This appears as though it is related to your body's own defense mechanism wiping out good brain cells in error. What provokes the immune system in destroying those cells is a mystery. Examples of the more uncommon variables which bring about central diabetes insipidus consists of: Brain damage created by not enough oxygen, which sometimes could materialize while having a stroke Cancers that move to your brain from some other region within your body, such as your lungs or possibly the bone marrow Infections, for example like meningitis as well as encephalitis Yet another variety goes by the name of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. In this type ADH is created in the appropriate quantities. Nevertheless, a person's kidneys aren't able to interact with the ADH effectively ultimately causing problems such as abnormal thirst in addition to greater urine creation. Conditions Leading to Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus This problem permanently impacts the kidneys' capability to condense the urine. Whenever family genes are among the contributing factors it is referred to as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Generally it impacts males, though females could pass the specific gene down to her children. Additionally, you can get it from several medications or even health problems. The most widespread cause is the medication lithium. This kind of medicinal drug is typically used to deal with bipolar disorder. Lengthy utilization of lithium damages kidney cells which make them not able to respond to ADH. Approximately fifty percent of folks on lengthy lithium treatment will probably come down with this disorder. Stopping lithium treatments could very well improve normal kidney ability, though in a lot of situations kidney impairment can be irreparable. Other circumstances that may lead to acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus may include: Kidney disorders Hypercalcaemia, because of large amounts of calcium inside of your blood. A large amount of calcium may harm the kidneys Ureteral blockage, kidney problems caused by obstruction inside of the tubes linking the kidneys and the bladder Treatment Methods Therapy will depend upon what type you may have. Because central disbetes insipidus is caused by a scarcity of (ADH), therapy is usually taking desmopressin, a synthetic antidiuretic hormone. Common Searches: nephrogenic diabetes insipidus nephrogenic diabetes insipidus treatment treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus nephrogenic diabetes insipidus lithium nephrogenic diabetes insipidus symptoms diabetes insipidus nephrogenic treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus lithium nephrogenic diabetes insipidus lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in dogs
Views: 2515 GoGoGadgetGirls
Lithium-Induced Nephropathy
 
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Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00302841026182,00306932607174,alsfakia@gmail.com, https://plus.google.com/communities/115462130054650919641?sqinv=VFJWaER0c2NCRl9ERzRjZWhxQmhzY09kVV84cjRn , ,https://plus.google.com/u/0/+AlexandrosGSfakianakis , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQH21WX8Qn5YSTKrlJ3OrmQ , https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCTREJHxB6yt4Gaqs4-mLzDA , https://twitter.com/g_orl?lang=el, https://www.instagram.com/alexandrossfakianakis/, Lithium-Induced Nephropathy via The New England Journal of Medicine A 59-year-old man with a history of bipolar disorder was admitted to the hospital after a fall. He received a diagnosis of multiple fractures of the head and spine; the fractures were managed nonoperatively. During the hospitalization, his urine output was noted to range from 4 to 6 liters per day. The patient had taken lithium for 27 years before discontinuing the medication 8 years before the current presentation because of mild hyperparathyroidism and renal insufficiency (serum creatinine level, 1.5 mg per deciliter [130 μmol per liter]). While he was immobilized in the hospital, his serum sodium levels rose from 138 mmol per liter to 149 mmol per liter, with a urine osmolality that was inappropriately low (262 mOsm per kilogram). The urine osmolality did not increase with the administration of desmopressin, which confirmed a diagnosis of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. As part of the evaluation for the fall, computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast enhancement was performed, and the results showed numerous small renal cysts in the cortex and medulla of both kidneys (axial [Panel A] and coronal [Panel B] views, with a nonstandard window used to enhance visibility of cysts). Lithium is known to cause tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which may be seen on imaging as multiple small cysts. Management of this patient’s condition included a low-salt diet and a liberal intake of fluids. His sodium level normalized, and he was discharged to a rehabilitation facility.
Central Diabetes Insipidus
 
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Central Diabetes Insipidus Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 53507 CanadaQBank
new lithium induced polyuria and polydipsia 2017
 
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CONTINUE WATCHING: https://goo.gl/Wk3nTi?47034
Lithium: the lightest metal and therapeutic agent in pathological emotional. J. Rybakowski
 
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The lecture of usz Rybakowski, Lithium: the lightest metal and therapeutic agent in pathological emotional instability given during the 15th Kraków Methodological Conference - The Emotional. lithium induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus and chronic toxicity, the so called SILENT Syndrome Professor Wayne Drevets discusses ways in which lithium may affect bipolar disorder. It affects multiple neurotransmitter systems and may protect brain structures that are atrophied in bipolar.
Views: 2 copy conk
Diabetes Insipidus And Lithium Treatment
 
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treatment for diabetes insipidus
 
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►►http://diabetestreatment.fboks.com◄◄ Natural Treatment For Diabetes!!! treatment for diabetes insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI ) is a rare disease that , when the kidneys are not able to save water , as occurs perform their function of filtering blood . It is often confused with diabetes mellitus, because a symptom that both diseases have in common is frequent and excessive urination treatment for diabetes insipidus. The word diabetes comes from the Greek word for siphon. A doctor in ancient Greece coined the disease diabetes because sufferers passed water like a siphon. Adding insipidus and mellitus is directed differ from the person , the concentration of the water. Insipidus comes from the Latin without taste. Urine of someone suffering from type DI is greatly diluted treatment for diabetes insipidus. Mellitus is also derived from the Latin word for honey , and thus diabetes mellitus (DM ) is responsible for urination , which is sweet and concentrated established. There are four types of DI . These are: Neurogenic diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes insipidus as . This is caused when the anti- diuretic hormone or vasopressin stored by the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is not produced in sufficient quantities. Vasopressin causes the kidneys to conserve water treatment for diabetes insipidus, but excrete the same amount of waste products. Diabetes insipidus (NDI ), treatment for diabetes insipidus also called vasopressin resistance is known as the kidneys independent of the secretion of vasopressin. NDI is passed through genetic or be caused by kidney disease or believed as a side effect of the use of drugs such as lithium for other diseases. The third type is called gestagenic and occurs during pregnancy. The fourth type is known as dipsogenic DI and is characterized by excessive fluid consumption . The excess fluids cause vasopressin are suppressed. The primary symptoms of diabetes insipidus are excessive urination ( polyuria) and excessive thirst ( polydipsia ) treatment for diabetes insipidus. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus will be significantly abruptly. The sufferer will want to drink large amounts of water. You will have trouble sleeping, as they want to all the time to go to the toilet. In the case of children, there will often be bedwetting. Diabetes insipidus audit includes a fluid deprivation test . As the name implies , the patient drinks avoids any liquids for a prescribed time period. The urine is then analyzed to determine treatment for diabetes insipidus, it is the concentration and composition . Diabetes insipidus treatment involves a good and plentiful source of liquid . In neurogenic DI the drug desmopressin is taken to control the frequent thirst and urination treatment for diabetes insipidus. There is no natural cure for diabetes insipidus, but it provides no serious complications for the health if the person take on liquids when they feel thirsty . It is confused with diabetes mellitus because the symptoms are similar, but tests will determine what disease the person may be concerned with treatment for diabetes insipidus. treatment for diabetes insipidus treatment for diabetes insipidus in dogs treatment options for diabetes insipidus treatment for diabetes mellitus and insipidus diabetes insipidus test symptoms diabetes insipidus dogs diabetes insipidus information sample indicates diabetes insipidus
Views: 1010 GeorgeDiabetes
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
 
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Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is a form of diabetes insipidus primarily due to pathology of the kidney. This is in contrast to central/neurogenic diabetes insipidus, which is caused by insufficient levels of antidiuretic hormone/Arginine Vasopressin. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is caused by an improper response of the kidney to ADH, leading to a decrease in the ability of the kidney to concentrate the urine by removing free water. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 980 Audiopedia
Diabetes insipidus
 
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Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by excessive thirst and excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, with reduction of fluid intake having no effect on the concentration of the urine. There are different types of DI, each with a different set of causes. The most common type in humans is the neurological form, called Central DI (CDI), which involves a deficiency of arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). The second common type of DI is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI), which is due to kidney or nephron dysfunction caused by an insensitivity of the kidneys or nephrons to ADH. DI can also be gestational, or present as an iatrogenic artifact of alcohol or some types of drug abuse. DI should not be confused with nocturia. Although they have a common name, diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two entirely separate conditions with unrelated mechanisms. Both cause large amounts of urine to be produced (polyuria), and the term "diabetes" is derived from the Greek word meaning siphon. However, diabetes insipidus is either a problem with the production of antidiuretic hormone (central diabetes insipidus) or kidney's response to antidiuretic hormone (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus), whereas diabetes mellitus causes polyuria via a process called osmotic diuresis, due to the high blood sugar leaking into the urine and taking excess water along with it. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Views: 10599 Audiopedia
Lithium Induced Hypothyroidism
 
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Lithium Induced Hypothyroidism Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 5678 CanadaQBank
Anti manic drug Lithium adverse effects
 
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Lithium is used as anti manic drug. In mania the level of NA is increased. Lithium decreases INOSITOL recycling. Amiloride is DOC for lithium induced diabetes insipidus. Sodium being the partner of lithium in periodic table , affects it's clearance. Decreased sodium level in body increases lithium retention in body . So when we use diuretics with LITHIUM CARBONATE, we must have to reduce dose of lithium. Lithium also uncouples G PROTEIN coupled receptors, leading to its main adverse effects. Oedema is the most frequent adverse effect.
Lithium Lecture
 
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Please watch: "Type 1 Diabetes Melitus lecture by Dr.hemant" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Z8a0XJb2uE --~-- Hi Doctors! this video describes Lithium in a very simple way. Helps you to crack NEET PG EXAm , AIIMS, USMLE and all others.
Views: 352 Dr.Hemant sharma
DIABETES Insipidus Presentation
 
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BIO Presentation
Views: 3320 Chak Lon Kuang
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
 
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Drugs causing nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
Views: 84 USMLE exam gym
DIAGNOSIS OF DIABETES INSIPIDUS
 
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Views: 53 Health Apta
SIADH & DI
 
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Discussion of the pathophysiology of syndrome of inappropriate diuretic hormone and diabetes insipidus.
Views: 71834 Andrew Wolf
Lithium Nephropathy
 
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MRI images demonstrate innumerable tiny T2 hyperintese, T1 hypointense foci at the margins of both kidneys in a patient with known lithium nephropathy.
Views: 425 CTisus
lithium enduced renal disease ultrasound
 
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https://radiopaedia.org/articles/lithium-induced-renal-disease-1
Views: 787 Dr.Jamil Hawramy
The secret to divesting Lithium Decilicate
 
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My way of divesting and why and how.
Diabetes Insipidus by Julie Greene
 
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I believe I developed this condition around the age of 27, though it was not properly diagnosed until 2012 when I was in my 50's. I was given Lithium from age 26 until I was in my late 30's. I was not responsibly monitored on the drug, although most of the time when they did draw a level, the level was around 1.0. I believe I was 37 or 38 when they stopped it. I didn't have much say in what drugs were given to me. I am out of the mental health system now. I wish I had gotten out long ago. Love, Julie
Views: 630 Julie G
Diabetes Insipidus song Lyrics in the description
 
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for Medical school Highschol and College ENJOY ! #MEDSCHOOLSOCOOL Instrumental ; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KBovXCholwk I think he got that insipidus That diabetes insipidus Polyuria and polydipsia No ADH , so he can’t concentrate urine It can be central no ADH synthesis Or nephrogenic – no response to vasopressin I think he got that insipidus But is it central or nephrogenic V1 Central diabetes insipidus There are 6 main causes of this Pituitary tumor, idiopathic Autoimmunity, or from injuring’ Or from Surgery, Encephalopathy- I’m talking about the kind that’s ischemic ADH will be low And after water deprivation -in- There’s more than 50 percent increase in The urine osmolarity after desmopressin. Desmopressin and hydration are the treatments Of central diabetes insipidus I think he got that insipidus Chorus V2 Now nephrogenic diabetes Can be hereditary Where ADH receptor mutations are seen Or it can be secondary Secondary to hyper-calcemia Lithium or HYPOkalemia or demeclocycline which is an ADH ANTAGONIST Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus After water deprivation There’s minimal change in urine concentration Even after giving desmopressin Treat with hydrochlorothiazide , indomethacin Amiloride and hydration Give dietary salt restriction And avoid offending agents In both types of insipidus Urine gravity less than 1.006 blood osmolality is 290 or it can be greater than this . both give hyperosmotic volume contraction That means water will shift From the ICF to the ICF ICF osmolarity increases you should suspect insipidus if blood osmolality is above 295 to 300 or if plasma sodium is 145 or above it. Or urine osmolarity doesn’t rise even if blood concentration increases.
Views: 402 Ashley Barnhill
Case 727 * Lithium Toxicity * Dr. Mohammad Akram Babury, MD * doctorsforafghanistan.com
 
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Case 727 * Lithium Toxicity * Dr. Mohammad Akram Babury, MD * doctorsforafghanistan.com داکتر صاحب محمد اکرم بابری ازکارهای علمی و با ارزش شما یک جهان تشکر. ناصر اوریا Send us your feedbacks/suggestions. Regards, Naser Oria https://www.facebook.com/doctorsforafghanistanfan?ref=hl لطفاً لنک فوق را لایک کنید/لطفاً پورتنی لنک خوښ کړی. مننه Visit us at زمونږ ویبسایت/ویبسایت ما:www.doctorsforafghanistan.com
Views: 93 Naser Oria
What is HYPERNATREMIA? What does HYPERNATREMIA mean? HYPERNATREMIA meaning & explanation
 
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What is HYPERNATREMIA? What does HYPERNATREMIA mean? HYPERNATREMIA meaning - HYPERNATREMIA pronunciation - HYPERNATREMIA definition - HYPERNATREMIA explanation - How to pronounce HYPERNATREMIA? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Hypernatremia is a high sodium ion level in the blood. Early symptoms may include a strong feeling of thirst, weakness, nausea, and loss of appetite. Severe symptoms include confusion, muscle twitching, and bleeding in or around the brain. Normal serum sodium levels are 135 - 145 mmol/L (135 - 145 mEq/L). Hypernatremia is generally defined as a serum sodium level of more than 145 mmol/L. Severe symptoms typically only occur when levels are above 160 mmol/L. Hypernatremia is typically classified by a person's fluid status into low volume, normal volume, and high volume. Low volume hypernatremia can occur from sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, diuretic medication, or kidney disease. Normal volume hypernatremia can be due to fever, inappropriately decreased thirst, prolonged increased breath rate, diabetes insipidus, and from lithium among other causes. High volume hypernatremia can be due to hyperaldosteronism, be health care caused such as when too much intravenous 3% normal saline or sodium bicarbonate is given, or rarely be from eating too much salt. Low blood protein levels can result in a falsely high sodium measurement. The cause can usually be determined by the history of events. Testing the urine can help if the cause is unclear. If the onset of hypernatremia was over a few hours, then it can be corrected relatively quickly using intravenous normal saline and 5% dextrose. Otherwise correction should occur slowly with, for those unable to drink water, half-normal saline. Hypernatremia due to diabetes insipidus as a result of a brain disorder, may be treated with the medication desmopressin. If the diabetes insipidus is due to kidney problems the medication which is causing it may need to be stopped. Hypernatremia affects 0.3-1% of people in hospital. It most often occurs in babies, those with impaired mental status, and the elderly. Hypernatremia is associated with an increased risk of death but it is unclear if it is the cause. The major symptom is thirst. The most important signs result from brain cell shrinkage and include confusion, muscle twitching or spasms. With severe elevations, seizures and comas may occur. Severe symptoms are usually due to acute elevation of the plasma sodium concentration to above 157 mmol/L (normal blood levels are generally about 135–145 mmol/L for adults and elderly). Values above 180 mmol/L are associated with a high mortality rate, particularly in adults. However, such high levels of sodium rarely occur without severe coexisting medical conditions. Serum sodium concentrations have ranged from 150–228 mmol/L in survivors of acute salt overdosage, while levels of 153–255 mmol/L have been observed in fatalities. Vitreous humor is considered to be a better postmortem specimen than postmortem serum for assessing sodium involvement in a death. The cornerstone of treatment is administration of free water to correct the relative water deficit. Water can be replaced orally or intravenously. Water alone cannot be administered intravenously (because of osmolarity issue), but rather can be given with addition to dextrose or saline infusion solutions. However, overly rapid correction of hypernatremia is potentially very dangerous. The body (in particular the brain) adapts to the higher sodium concentration. Rapidly lowering the sodium concentration with free water, once this adaptation has occurred, causes water to flow into brain cells and causes them to swell. This can lead to cerebral edema, potentially resulting in seizures, permanent brain damage, or death. Therefore, significant hypernatremia should be treated carefully by a physician or other medical professional with experience in treatment of electrolyte imbalance, specific treatment like ACE inhibitors in heart failure and corticosteroids in nephropathy also can be used.
Views: 1041 The Audiopedia
Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramics
 
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Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic Block, with HT/LT/MO/HO multiple transparency choices, super natural aesthetics, excellent marginal fit, fully digital CAD/CAM machining. Suitable for chairside dental restorative work.
Views: 2567 Upcera Dental
How to treat diabetes naturally
 
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Views: 43 Faz
Lithium associated hypothyroidism
 
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Endogenous thyrotoxicosis will be associated with elevated thyroglobulin levels. If the patient is taking too much thyroid medication, the thyrglobulin level will be decreased or undetectable.
Cure For Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus
 
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Short Film: Lithium
 
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Views: 170 ShinigamiXC2
SIADH for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 2
 
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Handwritten video lecture on pathogenesis, pathophysiology symptoms and treatment of SIADH for USMLE Step 1 and USMLE Step 3. In SIADH there is increased secretion of ADH or vasopressin which leads to increase reabsorption of water leading to water intoxication. PHYSIOLOGY OF ADH Osmoreceptors detect high osmolality which activates the hypothalamus to produce and release ADH. ADH is then stored in the posterior pituitary and released. Once released ADH activates the V1 receptor which leads to vasoconstriction. ADH also activates V2 receptor in the collecting ducts which contain the principal cells. ADH enters the cells and activates vesicles which are lined with aquaporin 2 channels. This leads to increased reabsorption of water through the aquaporin channel due to high osmolality in medulla. PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF SIADH Patient is ingesting water however not able to suppress ADH and there is water retention. Increase in extracellular fluid volume which activates secondary naturietic mechanisms such as increasing ANP and Decreasing RAAS. This is able to restore the blood volume in SIADH patients, but there is a loss of sodium leading to hyponatremia. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF SIADH Symptoms primarily associated with hyponatremia. Neurological symptoms such as malaise, coma, obtundation. Patients with SIADH will have low plasma osmolality, hyponatremia, high urine osmolality. Also remember in SIADH the potassium will be normal because of cellular shift that my occur. ETIOLOGY OF SIADH CNS Causes of SIADH include Stroke, hemorrhage, infections, trauma. Subarachnoid hemorrhage can also lead to cerebral salt wasting as well as SIADH. In both cases ADH will be high but in cerebral salt wasting it will be high secondarily to loss of salt. Drugs associated with SIADH include carbamazepine, chlorpropramide, cyclophosphamide, SSRI, desmopressin, oxytocin. Tumor associated with SIADH are small cell lung cancer, head and neck tumors, olfactory neuroblastoma. Many pulmonary conditions may also lead to SIADH including pneumonia, asthma, ARDS, atelectasis. Surgery of the pituitary can lead to SIADH. Endocrine abnormalities such as hypothyroidism may be a cause of SIADH. Hereditary conditions of SIADH include V2 receptor mutation. TREATMENT OF SIADH Treat any underlying cause or discontinue medication causing SIADH which will usually reverse SIADH. Correct sodium slowly (less than 9meq/L within 24 hours) or it may lead to osmotic demyelination. Fluid restriction of less than 800ml/day this can start to increase serum sodium. But don’t use fluid restriction in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Hypertonic saline IV to replace sodium as they lose water. Still continues to activate ANP and decrease RAAS but can be afforded because of increase sodium. Increase solute intake to help replenish the sodium loss. May consider loop diuretic if urine osmolality is greater than 500mosmols. Vasopressin antagonist such as tolvaptan and conivaptan are also useful in SIADH. Demeclocycline and lithium both block the function of ADH and there are useful in SIADH.
Views: 3352 the study spot
NCLEX Hotspot Question Example: Digoxin Practice Question Pharmacology
 
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This is an NCLEX hotspot practice question example about a nursing assessment for the drug Digoxin (Lanoxin). For this particular NCLEX practice question, you will have to identify what area on the diagram you will assess prior to administering Digoxin. Before a nurse administers Lanoxin, it is important to assess the apical pulse for 1 full minute. The apical pulse must be 60 beats per minute or greater. Therefore, to answer this question correctly you must identify on the diagram where the apical pulse is located on an adult patient. The apical pulse is located at the apex of the heart and is found at the 5th5th intercostal space midclavicular line. This location is also the point of maximum impulse. This video is part of a weekly NCLEX review series where I will be going over NCLEX-style questions with you. I will be helping you analyze and breakdown each question, and walk you through how to select the correct option. NCLEX questions require critical thinking and you must know how to use your nursing knowledge to gather the facts and analyze what the question is asking. NCLEX Hotspot Practice Question: A 55-year-old male patient is ordered by the physician to take Digoxin (Lanoxin) 0.25 mg by mouth daily. Prior to administering this medication, you will assess what area on the diagram? Watch the video for the correct answer and rationale. Free NCLEX practice quizzes: http://www.registerednursern.com/nursing-student-quizzes-tests/ #NCLEX #NCLEX-RN #Nursingschool #Nurse Notes: http://www.registerednursern.com/nclex-hotspot-practice-question/ Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=registerednursern Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-ultimate-list-of-nursing-medical-supplies-and-items-a-new-nurse-student-nurse-needs-to-buy/ Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/RegisteredNurseRN/videos All of our videos in a playlist: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pAhHxt663pU&list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXMveRcN4df0bad3ugEaQnk Popular Playlists: NCLEX Reviews: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWtwCDmLHyX2UeHofCIcgo0 Fluid & Electrolytes: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWJSZ9pL8L3Q1dzdlxUzeKv Nursing Skills: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUhd_qQYEbp0Eab3uUKhgKb Nursing School Study Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWBO40qeDmmaMwMHJEWc9Ms Nursing School Tips & Questions" https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVQok-t1X5ZMGgQr3IMBY9M Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUkW_DpJekN_Y0lFkVNFyVF Types of Nursing Specialties: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfW8dRD72gUFa5W7XdfoxArp Healthcare Salary Information: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVN0vmEP59Tx2bIaB_3Qhdh New Nurse Tips: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVTqH6LIoAD2zROuzX9GXZy Nursing Career Help: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVXjptWyvj2sx1k1587B_pj EKG Teaching Tutorials: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU-A9UTclI0tOYrNJ1N5SNt Dosage & Calculations for Nurses: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUYdl0TZQ0Tc2-hLlXlHNXq Diabetes Health Managment: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXtEx17D7zC1efmWIX-iIs9
Views: 29058 RegisteredNurseRN
Mood stabilisers : Anti Manic Drugs
 
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1. What are Anti Manic Drugs ? 2. What are MOOD STABILISERS ?Why It Is Used. Mood stabilizers can help to treat mania and to prevent the return of both manic and depressive episodes in bipolar disorder. They may also help for treat the mood problems associated with schizophrenia, such as depression.Antimanic drug, any drug that stabilizes mood by controlling symptoms of mania, the abnormal psychological state of excitement. Mania is a severe form of emotional disturbance in which a person is progressively and inappropriately euphoric and simultaneously hyperactive in speech and locomotor behaviour. This is often accompanied by significant insomnia (inability to sleep), excessive talking, extreme confidence, and increased appetite. As the episode builds, the person experiences racing thoughts, extreme agitation, and incoherence, frequently replaced with delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia, and ultimately may become hostile and violent and may finally collapse. In some persons, periods of depressionand mania alternate, giving rise to bipolar disorder. The most effective antimanic medications, which are used primarily for bipolar disorder, are the simple salts lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. Although some serious side effects can occur with large doses of lithium, the ability to monitor blood levels and keep the doses within modest ranges makes it an effective treatment for manic episodes, and it can also stabilize the mood swings of the patient with bipolar disorder. Lithium has a gradual onset of action, taking effect several weeks following initiation of treatment. The precise mechanism of its action is not known. If patients take an overdose of lithium, or if their normal salt and water metabolism becomes unbalanced by intervening infections that cause anorexia or fluid loss, then loss of coordination, drowsiness, weakness, slurred speech, and blurred vision, as well as more serious chaotic cardiac rhythm and brain-wave activity with seizures may occur. Because lithium is generally excreted along with sodium in the urine, rehydration and supportive therapy are all that is required for treatment. Prolonged use of lithium, however, can in fact damage the body’s ability to respond properly to the hormone vasopressin, which stimulates the reabsorption of water, thus causing the emergence of diabetes insipidus, a disorder characterized by extreme thirst and excessive production of very dilute urine. Lithium can also interfere with the response of the thyroid gland to the thyroxin-stimulating hormone produced in the pituitary gland. Other compounds used in the treatment of mania include valproic acid, carbamazepine, gabapentin, benzodiazepines (e.g., clonazepam and lorazepam), haloperidol, and chloropromazine. These substances reduce the transmission of nerve impulses in the brain and thereby lessen the severity of manic episodes. They are important antimanic alternatives to lithium in instances when lithium does not provide adequate symptom control, and, with some exceptions, they may be used in combination with lithium, particularly when rapid control of acute mania is needed to bridge the delay to onset of action of lithium therapy.
Antipsychotic-induced Hyperprolactinemia
 
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Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 8612 CanadaQBank
Addison Disease
 
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Addison Disease Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for AMC Exams, MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 69542 CanadaQBank
LITHIUM (Li)
 
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Watch,like,comment and subscribe! In this video, I demonstrate the many properties of lithium metal! My sis is the camera person! Lithium can 1. Produce elemental Hydrogen gas (H2) 2. Lithium Hydroxide when in water (LiOH) 3. MAKE A BLINDING RAY OF OVER 3000°C FIRE OF DEATH
Hyperparathyroidism
 
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Hyperparathyroidism Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for AMC Exams, MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 42568 CanadaQBank
Diseases & Conditions
 
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Diseases & Conditions URIDOC improves your life Urinary Hesitancy. Urinary Retention. Nocturia. Waking up at night to urinate can ruin your day. The need to urinate frequently can affect your life. Achieving an empty bladder can be simple Diseases & Conditions What is nocturia? Nocturia is a condition in which you wake up during the night because you have to urinate. This condition becomes more common as people age and occurs in both men and women, sometimes for different reasons. Normally, you should be able to sleep six to eight hours during the night without having to get up to go to the bathroom. People who have nocturia wake up more than once a night to urinate. This can cause disruptions in a normal sleep cycle. Causes of polyuria High fluid intake Untreated diabetes (Type 1 and Type 2) Diabetes insipidus, gestational diabetes (occurs during pregnancy) Causes of nocturnal polyuria Congestive heart failure Edema of lower extremities (swelling of the legs) Sleeping disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (breathing is interrupted or stops many times during sleep) Certain drugs, including diuretics (water pills), cardiac glycosides, demeclocycline, lithium, methoxyflurane, phenytoin, propoxyphene, and excessive vitamin D Drinking too much fluid before bedtime, especially coffee, caffeinated beverages, or alcohol
Views: 31 Uridoc Info
Borderline Personality Disorder
 
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Borderline Personality Disorder Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 13108 CanadaQBank
abdella ame mussa-Lithium is medicine which is use mental illness
 
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abdella ame mussa-Lithium is medicine which is use mental illness
Hypercalcaemia
 
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Subscribe to this channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCKDwY2bhQtcMUZ3UFdN3Mng?sub_confirmation=1 Other Endocrinology Lectures: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLfBFwAwues0l7OpPoCazPLoOPTkRfUsRR Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum. The normal range is 2.1–2.6 mmol/L (8.8–10.7 mg/dL, 4.3–5.2 mEq/L) with levels greater than 2.6 mmol/L defined as hypercalcemia. Those with a mild increase that has developed slowly typically have no symptoms. In those with greater levels or rapid onset, symptoms may include abdominal pain, bone pain, confusion, depression, weakness, kidney stones, or an abnormal heart rhythm including cardiac arrest. Most cases are due to primary hyperparathyroidism or cancer. Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia, and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide. Diagnosis should generally include either a corrected calcium or ionized calcium level and be confirmed after a week. Specific changes, such as a shortened QT interval, may be seen on an electrocardiogram (ECG). The neuromuscular symptoms of hypercalcemia are caused by a negative bathmotropic effect due to the increased interaction of calcium with sodium channels. Since calcium blocks sodium channels and inhibits depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers, increased calcium raises the threshold for depolarization. This results in diminished deep tendon reflexes (hyporeflexia), and skeletal muscle weakness. There is a general mnemonic for remembering the effects of hypercalcaemia: "Stones, Bones, Groans, Thrones and Psychiatric Overtones" Stones (kidney or biliary) Bones (bone pain) Groans (abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting) Thrones (polyuria) resulting in dehydration due to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus from nephrocalcinosis Psychiatric overtones (Depression 30–40%, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, insomnia, coma) Other symptoms include cardiac arrhythmias (especially in those taking digoxin), fatigue, nausea, vomiting (emesis), anorexia, abdominal pain, constipation, & paralytic ileus. If renal impairment occurs as a result, manifestations can include polyuria, nocturia, and polydipsia. Psychiatric manifestation can include emotional instability, confusion, delirium, psychosis, & stupor. Limbus sign seen in eye due to hypercalcemia. Hypercalcemia can result in an increase in heart rate and a positive inotropic effect (increase in contractility). Symptoms are more common at high calcium blood values (12.0 mg/dL or 3 mmol/l). Severe hypercalcaemia (above 15–16 mg/dL or 3.75–4 mmol/l) is considered a medical emergency: at these levels, coma and cardiac arrest can result. The high levels of calcium ions decrease the neuron membrane permeability to sodium ions, thus decreasing excitability, which leads to hypotonicity of smooth and striated muscle. This explains the fatigue, muscle weakness, low tone and sluggish reflexes in muscle groups. The sluggish nerves also explain drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, stupor and / or coma. In the gut this causes constipation. Hypocalcaemia causes the opposite by the same mechanism. Initial therapy: hydration, increasing salt intake, and forced diuresis. hydration is needed because many patients are dehydrated due to vomiting or kidney defects in concentrating urine. increased salt intake also can increase body fluid volume as well as increasing urine sodium excretion, which further increases urinary potassium excretion. after rehydration, a loop diuretic such as furosemide can be given to permit continued large volume intravenous salt and water replacement while minimizing the risk of blood volume overload and pulmonary oedema. In addition, loop diuretics tend to depress calcium reabsorption by the kidney thereby helping to lower blood calcium levels can usually decrease serum calcium by 1–3 mg/dL within 24 hours caution must be taken to prevent potassium or magnesium depletion bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogues with high affinity for bone, especially areas of high bone-turnover. they are taken up by osteoclasts and inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption current available drugs include (in order of potency): (1st gen) etidronate, (2nd gen) tiludronate, IV pamidronate, alendronate (3rd gen) zoledronate and risedronate more: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypercalcaemia
Endometrial Cancer
 
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Endometrial Cancer Instructional Tutorial Video CanadaQBank.com QBanks for the MCCEE, MCCQE & USMLE
Views: 54118 CanadaQBank
Amiloride
 
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Amiloride: The potassium sparing wonder drug! Brought to you by Belmont University College of Pharmacy, Class of 2017.
Views: 262 VilleLakes
Lithium - Kevin M. - Tale By Rhymusound
 
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ithium can be treated as a poison. It can be treated if proper medication is given immediately. However in the event that it’s not treated, or if medicine is deferred excessively long- it can have perpetual outcomes or lead to death. Lithium has high toxicity. Beware of Lithium poisoning. - Tale By Rhymusound ------------------------- Music: Lithium, Kevin MacLeod (incompetech.com) Licensed under Creative Commons: By Attribution 3.0 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
Views: 38 Rhymusound