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Computer-animated model of accommodation - Supplementary video: 25983
 
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Supplementary video of the computer animated model from the original research paper published in Clinical Ophthalmology "Computer-animated model of accommodation and theory of reciprocal zonular action" by Daniel B Goldberg. Read the original research article here: http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=8558 Abstract: This report presents a computer-animated model of the structures of accommodation based on new understanding of the anatomy of the zonular apparatus integrated with current understanding of the mechanism of accommodation. Analysis of this model suggests a new, consolidated theory of the mechanism of accommodation including a new theory of reciprocal zonular action. A three-dimensional animated model of the eye in accommodation and disaccommodation was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator. Current understanding of the anatomy of the zonule and the attachments of the vitreous zonule to the anterior hyaloid membrane is incomplete. Recent studies have demonstrated three components of the vitreous zonule: (1) anterior vitreous zonule (previously "hyalocapsular" zonule), which attaches the ciliary plexus in the valleys of the ciliary processes to the anterior hyaloid membrane in the region medial to the ciliary body and Weiger's ligament; (2) intermediate vitreous zonule, which attaches the ciliary plexus to the anterior hyaloid peripherally; and (3) posterior vitreous zonule, which creates a sponge-like ring at the attachment zone that anchors the pars plana zonules. The pars plana zonules attach posteriorly to the elastic choroid above the ora serrata. Analysis of the computer-animated model demonstrates the synchronized movements of the accommodative structures in accommodation and disaccommodation. Utilizing model-based reasoning, it is shown that the posterior zonules attach to and provide traction to the anterior vitreous membrane and Weiger's ligament. This model supports the concept that the ciliary body/zonule/anterior hyaloid complex contributes to the changes in the posterior lens capsule during accommodation, supporting an extralenticular component to accommodation and demonstrating an alternative to the "vitreous support" theories. There is a reciprocal action of the anterior zonules and the posterior zonules. During ciliary body contraction, the anterior zonules lose tension while the posterior zonules stretch and exert force on the posterior lens capsule playing a role in shaping the posterior lens thickness and curvature. During ciliary body relaxation, the posterior zonules lose tension as the lens flattens and is pulled back by the increasing tension of the anterior zonules.
Views: 150832 Dove Medical Press
Bioactivity of an Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract – video abstract 79871
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and skin regenerative properties of an Aloe vera-based extract of Nerium oleander leaves (NAE -8®)” published in the open access journal Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology by Benson KF, Newman RA, Jensen GS. Objective: The goal for this study was to evaluate the effects of an Aloe vera-based Nerium oleander extract (NAE-8®), compared to an extract of A. vera gel alone (ALOE), and to an aqueous extract of N. oleander (AQ-NOE) in bioassays pertaining to dermatologic potential with respect to antioxidant protection, anti-inflammatory effects, and cytokine profiles in vitro. Methods: Cellular antioxidant protection was evaluated in three separate bioassays: The cellular antioxidant protection of erythrocytes (CAP-e) assay, protection of cellular viability and prevention of apoptosis, and protection of intracellular reduced glutathione levels, where the last two assays were performed using human primary dermal fibroblasts. Reduction of intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was tested using polymorphonuclear cells in the absence and presence of oxidative stress. Changes to cytokine and chemokine profiles when whole blood cells and human primary dermal fibroblasts were exposed to test products were determined using a 40-plex Luminex array as a method for exploring the potential cross-talk between circulating and skin-resident cells. Results: The NAE-8® provided significantly better antioxidant protection in the CAP-e bioassay than AQ-NOE. NAE-8® and AQ-NOE both protected cellular viability and intracellular reduced glutathione, and reduced the ROS formation significantly when compared to control cells, both under inflamed and neutral culture conditions. ALOE showed minimal effect in these bioassays. In contrast to the NAE-8®, the AQ-NOE showed induction of inflammation in the whole blood cultures, as evidenced by the high induction of CD69 expression and secretion of a number of inflammatory cytokines. The treatment of dermal fibroblasts with NAE-8® resulted in selective secretion of cytokines involved in collagen and hyaluronan production as well as re-epithelialization during wound healing. Conclusion: NAE-8®, a novel component of a commercial cosmetic product, showed beneficial antioxidant protection in several cellular models, without the induction of leukocyte activation and secretion of inflammatory cytokines. The biological efficacy of NAE-8® was unique from both ALOE and AQ-NOE. Read the original article here: http://www.dovepress.com/antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-anti-apoptotic-and-skin-regenerative-pro-peer-reviewed-article-CCID
Views: 8530 Dove Medical Press
Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure - Video abstract: 24603
 
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Video abstract of paper "Effect of melatonin on nocturnal blood pressure: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" published in the journal Vascular Health and Risk Management by Ehud Grossman, Moshe Laudon, Nava Zisapel. Read the perspectives article here: http://www.dovepress.com/effect-of-melatonin-on-nocturnal-blood-pressure-meta-analysis-of-rand-peer-reviewed-article-VHRM Conclusion: Add-on controlled-release melatonin to antihypertensive therapy is effective and safe in ameliorating nocturnal hypertension, whereas fast-release melatonin is ineffective. It is necessary that larger trials of longer duration be conducted in order to determine the long-term beneficial effects of controlled-release melatonin in patients with nocturnal hypertension.
Views: 5821 Dove Medical Press
Usability of the ixekizumab autoinjector – Supplementary video [ID 113752]
 
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Supplementary video of original research paper “Usability of a novel disposable autoinjector device for ixekizumab: results from a qualitative study and an open-label clinical trial, including patientreported experience” published in the open access journal Medical Devices: Evidence and Research by authors Callis Duffin et al. Read the original article here: https://www.dovepress.com/usability-of-a-novel-disposable-autoinjector-device-for-ixekizumab-res-peer-reviewed-article-MDER
Views: 3431 Dove Medical Press
Immunotherapy for NSCLC - Video abstract 57550
 
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Video abstract of review paper "New modalities of cancer treatment for NSCLC: focus on immunotherapy" published in the open access journal Cancer Management and Research by Davies. Abstract: Recent advances in the understanding of immunology and antitumor immune responses have led to the development of new immunotherapies, including vaccination approaches and monoclonal antibodies that inhibit immune checkpoint pathways. These strategies have shown activity in melanoma and are now being tested in lung cancer. The antibody drugs targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and programmed cell death protein-1 immune checkpoint pathways work by restoring immune responses against cancer cells, and are associated with unconventional response patterns and immune-related adverse events as a result of their mechanism of action. As these new agents enter the clinic, nurses and other health care providers will require an understanding of the unique efficacy and safety profiles with immunotherapy to optimize potential patient benefits. This paper provides a review of the new immunotherapeutic agents in development for lung cancer, and strategies for managing patients on immunotherapy. Read the review paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/new-modalities-of-cancer-treatment-for-nsclc-focus-on-immunotherapy-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 13734 Dove Medical Press
Maternal immune system and fetal development – Video abstract 80652
 
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Video abstract of review paper “The maternal immune system during pregnancy and its influence on fetal development” published in the Research and Reports in Biology journal by Morelli et al. The maternal immune system plays a critical role in the establishment, maintenance, and completion of a healthy pregnancy. However, the specific mechanisms utilized to achieve these goals are not well understood. Various cells and molecules of the immune system are key players in the development and function of the placenta and the fetus. Effector cells of the immune system act to promote and yet limit placental development. The T helper 1 (Th1)/T helper 2 (Th2) immune shift during pregnancy is well established. A fine balance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory influences is required. We herein review the evidence regarding maternal tolerance of fetal tissues and the underlying cell-mediated immune and humoral (hormones and cytokines) mechanisms. We also note the many unanswered questions in our understanding of these mechanisms. In addition, we summarize the clinical manifestations of an altered maternal immune system during pregnancy related to susceptibility to common viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as to autoimmune diseases. Read the review article here: https://www.dovepress.com/the-maternal-immune-system-during-pregnancy-and-its-influence-on-fetal-peer-reviewed-article-RRB
Views: 5736 Dove Medical Press
Pharmacophore modeling in drug discovery [46843]
 
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Video abstract of review paper “Pharmacophore modeling: advances, limitations, and current utility in drug discovery” published in the open access Journal of Receptor, Ligand and Channel Research by authors Qing X, Lee XY, De Raeymaeker J, et al. Abstract: Pharmacophore modeling is a successful yet very diverse subfield of computer-aided drug design. The concept of the pharmacophore has been widely applied to the rational design of novel drugs. In this paper, we review the computational implementation of this concept and its common usage in the drug discovery process. Pharmacophores can be used to represent and identify molecules on a 2D or 3D level by schematically depicting the key elements of molecular recognition. The most common application of pharmacophores is virtual screening, and different strategies are possible depending on the prior knowledge. However, the pharmacophore concept is also useful for ADME-tox modeling, side effect, and off-target prediction as well as target identification. Furthermore, pharmacophores are often combined with molecular docking simulations to improve virtual screening. We conclude this review by summarizing the new areas where significant progress may be expected through the application of pharmacophore modeling; these include protein–protein interaction inhibitors and protein design. Read the full review paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/pharmacophore-modeling-advances-limitations-and-current-utility-in-dru-peer-reviewed-article-JRLCR
Views: 4184 Dove Medical Press
Can near-infrared energy reach the brain for treatment of TBI? - Video abstract [78182]
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Near-infrared photonic energy penetration: can infrared phototherapy effectively reach the human brain?" published in the open access journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern effecting civilians and military personnel. Research has yielded a better understanding of the pathophysiology of TBI, but effective treatments have not been forthcoming. Near-infrared light (NIR) has shown promise in animal models of both TBI and stroke. Yet, it remains unclear if sufficient photonic energy can be delivered to the human brain to yield a beneficial effect. This paper reviews the pathophysiology of TBI and elaborates the physiological effects of NIR in the context of this pathophysiology. Pertinent aspects of the physical properties of NIR, particularly in regards to its interactions with tissue, provide the background for understanding this critical issue of light penetration through tissue. Our recent tissue studies demonstrate no penetration of low level NIR energy through 2 mm of skin or 3 cm of skull and brain. However, at 10–15 W, 0.45%–2.90% of 810 nm light penetrated 3 cm of tissue. A 15 W 810 nm device (continuous or non-pulsed) NIR delivered 2.9% of the surface power density. Pulsing at 10 Hz reduced the dose of light delivered to the surface by 50%, but 2.4% of the surface energy reached the depth of 3 cm. Approximately 1.22% of the energy of 980 nm light at 10–15 W penetrated to 3 cm. These data are reviewed in the context of the literature on low-power NIR penetration, wherein less than half of 1% of the surface energy could reach a depth of 1 cm. NIR in the power range of 10–15 W at 810 and 980 nm can provide fluence within the range shown to be biologically beneficial at 3 cm depth. A companion paper reviews the clinical data on the treatment of patients with chronic TBI in the context of the current literature. Read the original article here: http://www.dovepress.com/near-infrared-photonic-energy-penetration-can-infrared-phototherapy-ef-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Views: 7490 Dove Medical Press
S. boulardii supports microbiota regeneration - Video abstract [ID 85574]
 
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Video abstract of a review paper "Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 supports regeneration of the intestinal microbiota after diarrheic dysbiosis – a review" published in the open access journal Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology by Moré MI, Swindsinski A. Abstract: The probiotic medicinal yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae HANSEN CBS 5926 (Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745) is used for the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. Its action is based on multiple mechanisms, including immunological effects, pathogen-binding and antitoxinic effects, as well as effects on digestive enzymes. Correlated with these effects, but also due to its inherent properties, S. boulardii is able to create a favorable growth environment for the beneficial intestinal microbiota, while constituting extra protection to the host mucus layer and mucosa. This review focuses on the positive influence of S. boulardii on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. In a dysbiosis, as during diarrhea, the main microbial population (especially Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Prevotellaceae) is known to collapse by at least one order of magnitude. This gap generally leads to transient increases in pioneer-type bacteria (Enterobacteriaceae, Bifidobacteriaceae, and Clostridiaceae). Several human studies as well as animal models demonstrate that treatment with S. boulardii in dysbiosis leads to the faster reestablishment of a healthy microbiome. The most relevant effects of S. boulardii on the fecal composition include an increase of short chain fatty acid-producing bacteria (along with a rise in short chain fatty acids), especially of Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, as well as an increase in Bacteroidaceae and Prevotellaceae. At the same time, there is a suppression of pioneer bacteria. The previously observed preventive action of S. boulardii, eg, during antibiotic therapy or regarding traveler’s diarrhea, can be explained by several mechanisms, including a stabilizing effect on the healthy microbiota as well as possibly on the mucus layer. Several different dysbiotic situations could profit from the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745. Its additional potential lies in a general stabilization of the gut flora for at-risk populations. More studies are needed to explore the full potential of this versatile probiotic yeast. Read the review paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/saccharomyces-boulardii-cncm-i-745-supports-regeneration-of-the-intest-peer-reviewed-article-CEG
Views: 2692 Dove Medical Press
Brief high-intensity exercise and blood glucose - Video abstract: 29222
 
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Video abstract of review paper "The impact of brief hig-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels" published in the open access journal of Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy by O Peter Adams. Background: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG), but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE) protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up) of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed. Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed. Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females) requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week) improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects) were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%. Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long-term efficacy, and optimal exercise intensity and duration. Read this review paper and sign up to receive Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy: http://www.dovepress.com/the-impact-of-brief-high-intensity-exercise-on-blood-glucose-levels-peer-reviewed-article-DMSO
Views: 3284 Dove Medical Press
Atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids – Video Abstract [ID 109946]
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “A prospective study of atopic dermatitis managed without topical corticosteroids for a 6-month period” to be published in the open access journal Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology by Fukaya et al. Topical corticosteroids (TCS) are regarded as the mainstay treatment for atopic dermatitis (AD). As AD has a tendency to heal naturally, the long-term efficacy of TCS in AD management should be compared with the outcomes seen in patients with AD not using TCS. However, there are few long-term studies that consider patients with AD not using TCS. We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study to assess the clinical outcomes in patients with AD who did not use TCS for 6 months and then compared our results with an earlier study by Furue et al which considered AD patients using TCS over 6 months. Our patients’ clinical improvement was comparable with the patients described in Furue’s research. In light of this, it is reasonable for physicians to manage AD patients who decline TCS, as the expected long-term prognosis is similar whether they use TCS or not. See the full article here: https://www.dovepress.com/a-prospective-study-of-atopic-dermatitis-managed-without-topical-corti-peer-reviewed-article-CCID
Views: 3926 Dove Medical Press
Emerging tick-borne diseases in Australia - Video abstract: 27336
 
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Video abstract of research paper "Emerging incidence of Lyme borreliosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Australia" published in the International Journal of General Medicine by Peter J Mayne. Read the case series article here: http://www.dovepress.com/search.php Background: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease (LD), and Babesia, Bartonella, and Ehrlichia species (spp.) are recognized tick-borne pathogens in humans worldwide. Using serology and molecular testing, the incidence of these pathogens was investigated in symptomatic patients from Australia. Methods: Sera were analyzed by an immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) followed by immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM Western blot (WB) assays. Both whole blood and sera were analyzed for detection of specific Borrelia spp. DNA using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Simultaneously, patients were tested for Babesia microti, Babesia duncani, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Bartonella henselae infection by IgG and IgM IFA serology, PCR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Results: Most patients reported symptom onset in Australia without recent overseas travel. 28 of 51 (55%) tested positive for LD. Of 41 patients tested for tick-borne coinfections, 13 (32%) were positive for Babesia spp. and nine (22%) were positive for Bartonella spp. Twenty-five patients were tested for Ehrlichia spp. and (16%) were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum while none were positive for Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Among the 51 patients tested for LD, 21 (41%) had evidence of more than one tick-borne infection. Positive tests for LD, Babesia duncani, Babesia microti, and Bartonella henselae were demonstrated in an individual who had never left the state of Queensland. Positive testing for these pathogens was found in three others whose movements were restricted to the east coast of Australia. Conclusion: The study identified a much larger tick-borne disease (TBD) burden within the Australian community than hitherto reported. In particular, the first cases of endemic human Babesia and Bartonella disease in Australia with coexisting Borrelia infection are described, thus defining current hidden and unrecognized components of TBD and demonstrating local acquisition in patients who have never been abroad.
Views: 2325 Dove Medical Press
Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis - Video abstract 69201
 
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Video abstract of_review_paper "Topical steroid addiction in atopic dermatitis" published in the open access journal_Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety_by_authors_Fukaya M, Sato K, Sato M, et al. Abstract: The American Academy of Dermatology published a new guideline regarding topical therapy in atopic dermatitis in May 2014. Although topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome had been mentioned as possible side effects of topical steroids in a 2006 review article in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, no statement was made regarding this illness in the new guidelines. This suggests that there are still controversies regarding this illness. Here, we describe the clinical features of topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome, based on the treatment of many cases of the illness. Because there have been few articles in the medical literature regarding this illness, the description in this article will be of some benefit to better understand the illness and to spur discussion regarding topical steroid addiction or red burning skin syndrome. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/topical-steroid-addiction-in-atopic-dermatitis-peer-reviewed-article-DHPS
Views: 7424 Dove Medical Press
In vitro study of RRS HA injectable mesotherapy - Video abstract [95108]
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "In vitro study of RRS HA injectable mesotherapy/biorevitalization product on human skin fibroblasts and its clinical utilization" published in the open access journal Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology by Pierre-Antoine Deglesne, Rodrigo Arroyo, Evgeniya Ranneva, et al. Abstract: Mesotherapy/biorevitalization with hyaluronic acid (HA) is a treatment approach currently used for skin rejuvenation. Various products with a wide range of polycomponent formulations are available on the market. Most of these formulations contain noncross-linked HA in combination with a biorevitalization cocktail, formed by various amounts of vitamins, minerals, amino acids, nucleotides, coenzymes, and antioxidants. Although ingredients are very similar among the different products, in vitro and clinical effects may vary substantially. There is a real need for better characterization of these products in terms of their action on human skin or in vitro skin models. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the RRS® (Repairs, Refills, Stimulates) HA injectable medical device on human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Skin fibroblast viability and its capacity to induce the production of key extracellular matrix were evaluated in the presence of different concentrations of RRS HA injectable. Viability was evaluated through colorimetric MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, and key extracellular matrix genes, type I collagen and elastin, were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results demonstrated that RRS HA injectable could promote human skin fibroblast viability (+15%) and increase fibroblast gene expression of type I collagen and elastin by 9.7-fold and 14-fold in vitro, respectively. These results demonstrate that mesotherapy/biorevitalization products can, at least in vitro, effectively modulate human skin fibroblasts. Read the original article here: https://www.dovepress.com/in-vitro-study-of-rrs-ha-injectable-mesotherapybiorevitalization-produ-peer-reviewed-article-CCID
Views: 7474 Dove Medical Press
Near-infrared laser phototherapy for brain injury- Video abstract 65809
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Treatments for traumatic brain injury with emphasis on transcranial near-infrared laser phototherapy" published in the open access journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by authors Larry D Morries, Paolo Cassano and Theodore A Henderson. Abstract: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a growing health concern affecting civilians and military personnel. In this review, treatments for the chronic TBI patient are discussed, including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cognitive therapy, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. All available literature suggests a marginal benefit with prolonged treatment courses. An emerging modality of treatment is near-infrared (NIR) light, which has benefit in animal models of stroke, spinal cord injury, optic nerve injury, and TBI, and in human trials for stroke and TBI. The extant literature is confounded by variable degrees of efficacy and a bewildering array of treatment parameters. Some data indicate that diodes emitting low-level NIR energy often have failed to demonstrate therapeutic efficacy, perhaps due to failing to deliver sufficient radiant energy to the necessary depth. As part of this review, we present a retrospective case series using high-power NIR laser phototherapy with a Class IV laser to treat TBI. We demonstrate greater clinical efficacy with higher fluence, in contrast to the bimodal model of efficacy previously proposed. In ten patients with chronic TBI (average time since injury 9.3 years) given ten treatments over the course of 2 months using a high-power NIR laser (13.2 W/0.89 cm2 at 810 nm or 9 W/0.89 cm2 at 810 nm and 980 nm), symptoms of headache, sleep disturbance, cognition, mood dysregulation, anxiety, and irritability improved. Symptoms were monitored by depression scales and a novel patient diary system specifically designed for this study. NIR light in the power range of 10–15 W at 810 nm and 980 nm can safely and effectively treat chronic symptoms of TBI. The clinical benefit and effects of infrared phototherapy on mitochondrial function and secondary molecular events are discussed in the context of adequate radiant energy penetration. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/treatments-for-traumatic-brain-injury-with-emphasis-on-transcranial-ne-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Views: 2018 Dove Medical Press
Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment – Video abstract [ID 87075]
 
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Video abstract of an expert opinion paper “Hidden costs of antiretroviral treatment: the public health efficiency of drug packaging” published in the open access journal Drug Design, Development and Therapy by Andreu-Crespo À, Llibre JM, Cardona-Peitx G, et al. Abstract: While the overall percentage of unused antiretroviral medicines returned to the hospital pharmacy is low, their cost is quite high. Adverse events, treatment failure, pharmacokinetic interactions, pregnancy, or treatment simplification are common reasons for unplanned treatment changes. Socially inefficient antiretroviral packages prevent the reuse of drugs returned to the hospital pharmacy. We defined antiretroviral package categories based on the excellence of drug packaging and analyzed the number of pills and costs of drugs returned during a period of 1 year in a hospital-based HIV unit attending to 2,413 treated individuals. A total of 6,090 pills (34% of all returned antiretrovirals) – with a cost of 47,139.91€ – would be totally lost, mainly due to being packed up in the lowest efficiency packages. Newer treatments are packaged in low-excellence categories of packages, thus favoring the maintenance of these hidden costs in the near future. Therefore, costs of this low-efficiency drug packaging, where medication packages are started but not completed, in high-cost medications are substantial and should be properly addressed. Any improvement in the packaging by the manufacturer, and favoring the choice of drugs supplied through efficient packages (when efficacy, toxicity, and convenience are similar), should minimize the treatment expenditures paid by national health budgets. Read the expert opinion paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/hidden-costs-of-antiretroviral-treatment-the-public-health-efficiency--peer-reviewed-article-DDDT
Views: 11512 Dove Medical Press
Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia - Video abstract 43770
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia" published in the open access journal International Journal of Nanomedicine by authors HS Huang and JF Hainfeld. Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles heated by an alternating magnetic field could be used to treat cancers, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. However, direct intratumoral injections suffer from tumor incongruence and invasiveness, typically leaving undertreated regions, which lead to cancer regrowth. Intravenous injection more faithfully loads tumors, but, so far, it has been difficult achieving the necessary concentration in tumors before systemic toxicity occurs. Here, we describe use of a magnetic nanoparticle that, with a well-tolerated intravenous dose, achieved a tumor concentration of 1.9 mg Fe/g tumor in a subcutaneous squamous cell carcinoma mouse model, with a tumor to non-tumor ratio more than 16. With an applied field of 38 kA/m at 980 kHz, tumors could be heated to 60°C in 2 minutes, durably ablating them with millimeter (mm) precision, leaving surrounding tissue intact. Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia, cancer, alternating magnetic field, intravenous delivery Read the original research paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/intravenous-magnetic-nanoparticle-cancer-hyperthermia-peer-reviewed-article-IJN
Views: 2067 Dove Medical Press
Risk reduction of preterm birth with vaginal progesterone - Video abstract: 28944
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Vaginal progesterone in risk reduction of preterm birth in women with short cervix in the midtrimester of pregnancy" published in the open access International Journal of Women's Health by Meena Khandelwal. Abstract: Preterm birth is a major health problem for the neonate, family, country, and society in general. Despite many risk factors being identified for women destined to deliver preterm, short cervical length detected on transvaginal ultrasound is the most plausible, practical and sensitive risk factor for prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. The definition of short cervix has varied in various studies, but most commonly accepted is #2.5 cm in the midtrimester of pregnancy, though risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) increases as the cervical length decreases. Vaginal progesterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone, is the most bioavailable form of progesterone for uterine and cervical effects with the fewest side effects. Multiple prospective studies have consistently shown its benefits in decreasing sPTB rate in women with asymptomatic midtrimester short cervix. The safety for mother and fetus, and tolerability of vaginal progesterone, particularly the gel form, is also well established. Vaginal progesterone is a minimally invasive intervention that is not painful and is very safe, with reasonable cost where the benefits (even if argued to be small) clearly outweigh the risks. Thus there should be little hesitation for implementation of universal transvaginal cervical length screening and preventive vaginal progesterone treatment for women with short cervix. Read this review and sign up to receive the International Journal of Women's Health: http://www.dovepress.com/vaginal-progesterone-in-risk-reduction-of-preterm-birth-in-women-with--peer-reviewed-article-IJWH
Views: 3570 Dove Medical Press
Pharmacology of palmitoylethanolamide
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Evolution in pharmacologic thinking around the natural analgesic palmitoylethanolamide:from nonspecific resistance to PPAR-α agonist and effective nutraceutical" published in the open access Journal of Pain Research by author Jan M Keppel Hesselink. Abstract: The history of development of new concepts in pharmacology is a highly interesting topic. This review discusses scientific insights related to palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and its progression over a period of six decades, especially in light of the work of the science sociologists, Ludwig Fleck and Thomas Kuhn. The discovery of the cannabis receptors and the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was the beginning of a completely new understanding of many important homeostatic physiologic mechanisms in the human body. These discoveries were necessary for us to understand the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of PEA, a body-own fatty amide. PEA is a nutrient known already for more than 50 years. PEA is synthesized and metabolized in animal cells via a number of enzymes and has a multitude of physiologic functions related to metabolic homeostasis. PEA was identified in the 1950s as a therapeutic principle with potent anti-inflammatory properties. Since 1975, its analgesic properties have been noted and explored in a variety of chronic pain states. Since 2008, PEA has been available as a nutraceutical under the brand names Normast® and PeaPure®. A literature search on PEA meanwhile has yielded over 350 papers, all referenced in PubMed, describing the physiologic properties of this endogenous modulator and its pharmacologic and therapeutic profile. This review describes the emergence of concepts related to the pharmacologic profile of PEA, with an emphasis on the search into its mechanism of action and the impact of failing to identify such mechanism in the period 1957--1993, on the acceptance of PEA as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic compound. Read the review paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/evolution-in-pharmacologic-thinking-around-the-natural-analgesic-palmi-peer-reviewed-article-JPR
Views: 1714 Dove Medical Press
Islet cell transplantation for the treatment of type1 diabetes - video abstract 50789
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Islet cell transplantation for the treatment of type 1 diabetes: recent advances and future challenges" published in the open access journal Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy by Bruni A, Pepper AR, and Shapiro AMJ. Abstract: Islet transplantation is a well-established therapeutic treatment for a subset of patients with complicated type I diabetes mellitus. Prior to the Edmonton Protocol, only 9% of the 267 islet transplant recipients since 1999 were insulin independent for .1 year. In 2000, the Edmonton group reported the achievement of insulin independence in seven consecutive patients, which in a collaborative team effort propagated expansion of clinical islet transplantation centers worldwide in an effort to ameliorate the consequences of this disease. To date, clinical islet transplantation has established improved success with insulin independence rates up to 5 years post-transplant with minimal complications. In spite of marked clinical success, donor availability and selection, engraftment, and side effects of immunosuppression remain as existing obstacles to be addressed to further improve this therapy. Clinical trials to improve engraftment, the availability of insulin-producing cell sources, as well as alternative transplant sites are currently under investigation to expand treatment. With ongoing experimental and clinical studies, islet transplantation continues to be an exciting and attractive therapy to treat type I diabetes mellitus with the prospect of shifting from a treatment for some to a cure for all. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/islet-cell-transplantation-for-the-treatment-of-type-1-diabetes-recent-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 2443 Dove Medical Press
Meso-, micro-, and nano-scale rough Zr - Video Abstract ID 159955
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Biological and osseointegration capabilities of hierarchically (meso-/micro-/nano-scale) roughened zirconia” published in the open access International Journal of Nanomedicine by Rezaei NM, Hasegawa M, Ishijima M, et al. Purpose: Zirconia is a potential alternative to titanium for dental and orthopedic implants. Here we report the biological and bone integration capabilities of a new zirconia surface with distinct morphology at the meso-, micro-, and nano-scales. Methods: Machine-smooth and roughened zirconia disks were prepared from yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP), with rough zirconia created by solid-state laser sculpting. Morphology of the surfaces was analyzed by three-dimensional imaging and profiling. Rat femur-derived bone marrow cells were cultured on zirconia disks. Zirconia implants were placed in rat femurs and the strength of osseointegration was evaluated by biomechanical push-in test. Results: The rough zirconia surface was characterized by meso-scale (50 μm wide, 6–8 μm deep) grooves, micro-scale (1–10 μm wide, 0.1–3 μm deep) valleys, and nano-scale (10–400 nm wide, 10–300 nm high) nodules, whereas the machined surface was flat and uniform. The average roughness (Ra) of rough zirconia was five times greater than that of machined zirconia. The expression of bone-related genes such as collagen I, osteopontin, osteocalcin, and BMP-2 was 7–25 times upregulated in osteoblasts on rough zirconia at the early stage of culture. The number of attached cells and rate of proliferation were similar between machined and rough zirconia. The strength of osseointegration for rough zirconia was twice that of machined zirconia at weeks two and four of healing, with evidence of mineralized tissue persisting around rough zirconia implants as visualized by electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Conclusion: This unique meso-/micro-/nano-scale rough zirconia showed a remarkable increase in osseointegration compared to machine-smooth zirconia associated with accelerated differentiation of osteoblasts. Cell attachment and proliferation were not compromised on rough zirconia unlike on rough titanium. This is the first report introducing a rough zirconia surface with distinct hierarchical morphology and providing an effective strategy to improve and develop zirconia implants. Read the original research article here: https://www.dovepress.com/biological-and-osseointegration-capabilities-of-hierarchically-meso-mi-peer-reviewed-article-IJN
Views: 703 Dove Medical Press
Clinical and laboratory features of intestinal tuberculosis - Video Abstract 154235
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Clinical and laboratory features of intestinal tuberculosis” published in the open access journal Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology by authors Patel and Yagnik. Background/aims: As increasing numbers of Crohn’s disease (CD) cases are being recognized in India, so the differential diagnosis of CD and gastrointestinal tuberculosis (GITB) is becoming increasingly important. If patients are misdiagnosed with GITB, toxicity may result from unnecessary anti-TB therapy and treatment of the primary disease (ie, CD) gets delayed. We therefore aimed to assess the accuracy of various parameters that can be used to predict GITB diagnosis at index evaluation. Materials and methods: This was a prospective, unicentric, observational study carried out in the gastroenterology department of a tertiary care hospital between August 2011 and January 2013. Patients who presented to our hospital and were suspected of having GITB were included in our study. Patients were then followed up over a 6-month period. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. Results: Of the 69 patients with GITB, 49 (71.01%) had thickening of the involved part of the colon and 33 (47.83%) had abdominal lymphadenopathy. The ileocecal valve was involved in 58 patients (84.05%) Histological detection of granulomas had 78.95% specificity, 36.23% sensitivity, and 51.40% accuracy. Tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction was found to have 78.95% specificity, 71.01% sensitivity, and 73.83% accuracy. BACTEC-MGIT culture was found to have 100% specificity, 20.29% sensitivity, and 48.60% accuracy. Conclusion: Although histology is helpful in ruling out other conditions, TB-specific findings such as caseating granuloma and acid-fast bacilli are rarely seen. Instead, tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction has the highest diagnostic accuracy followed by BACTEC culture. Read the original research paper here https://www.dovepress.com/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-intestinal-tuberculosis-peer-reviewed-article-CEG
Views: 1657 Dove Medical Press
HMQ for Lyme disease - Video Abstract ID 140224
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Empirical validation of the Horowitz Multiple Systemic Infectious Disease Syndrome Questionnaire for suspected Lyme disease” published in the open access journal International Journal of General Medicine by authors Citera M, Freeman PR, Horowitz RI. Purpose: Lyme disease is spreading worldwide, with multiple Borrelia species causing a broad range of clinical symptoms that mimic other illnesses. A validated Lyme disease screening questionnaire would be clinically useful for both providers and patients. Three studies evaluated such a screening tool, namely the Horowitz Multiple Systemic Infectious Disease Syndrome (MSIDS) Questionnaire. The purpose was to see if the questionnaire could accurately distinguish between Lyme patients and healthy individuals. Methods: Study 1 examined the construct validity of the scale examining its factor structure and reliability of the questionnaire among 537 individuals being treated for Lyme disease. Study 2 involved an online sample of 999 participants, who self-identified as either healthy (N=217) or suffering from Lyme now (N=782) who completed the Horowitz MSIDS Questionnaire (HMQ) along with an outdoor activity survey. We examined convergent validity among components of the scale and evaluated discriminant validity with the Big Five personality characteristics. The third study compared a sample of 236 patients with confirmed Lyme disease with an online sample of 568 healthy individuals. Results: Factor analysis results identified six underlying latent dimensions; four of these overlapped with critical symptoms identified by Horowitz – neuropathy, cognitive dysfunction, musculoskeletal pain, and fatigue. The HMQ showed acceptable levels of internal reliability using Cronbach’s coefficient alpha and exhibited evidence of convergent and divergent validity. Components of the HMQ correlated more highly with each other than with unrelated traits. Discussion: The results consistently demonstrated that the HMQ accurately differentiated those with Lyme disease from healthy individuals. Three migratory pain survey items (persistent muscular pain, arthritic pain, and nerve pain/paresthesias) robustly identified individuals with verified Lyme disease. The results support the use of the HMQ as a valid, efficient, and low-cost screening tool for medical practitioners to decide if additional testing is warranted to distinguish between Lyme disease and other illnesses. Read the original research paper here https://www.dovepress.com/empirical-validation-of-the-horowitz-multiple-systemic-infectious-dise-peer-reviewed-article-IJGM
Views: 911 Dove Medical Press
Novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems - Video abstract: 37840
 
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Video abstract of original research paper 'Video abstract bioavailability' to be published in the open access International Journal of Nanomedicine by Neves AR, Lúcio M, Martins S, et al. Introduction: Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines. Interest in this polyphenol has increased due to its pharmacological cardio- and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, and antiaging effects, among others. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic properties are less favorable, since the compound has poor bioavailability, low water solubility, and is chemically unstable. To overcome these problems, we developed two novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance resveratrol's oral bioavailability for further use in medicines, supplements, and nutraceuticals. Methods and materials: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) loaded with resveratrol were successfully produced by a modified hot homogenization technique. These were completely characterized to evaluate the quality of the developed resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles. Results: Cryo-scanning electron microscopy morphology studies showed spherical and uniform nanoparticles with a smooth surface. An average resveratrol entrapment efficiency of ~70% was obtained for both SLNs and NLCs. Dynamic light scattering measurements gave a Z-average of 150--250 nm, polydispersity index of ~0.2, and a highly negative zeta potential of around −30 mV with no statistically significant differences in the presence of resveratrol. These characteristics remained unchanged for at least 2 months, suggesting good stability. Differential scanning calorimetry studies confirmed the solid state of the SLNs and NLCs at both room and body temperatures. The NLCs had a less ordered crystalline structure conferred by the inclusion of the liquid lipid, since they had lower values for phase transition temperature, melting enthalpy, and the recrystallization index. The presence of resveratrol induced a disorder in the crystal structure of the nanoparticles, suggesting a favoring of its entrapment. The in vitro release studies on conditions of storage showed a negligible resveratrol release over several hours for both nanosystems and the in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal transit showed that the resveratrol remained mostly associated with the lipid nanoparticles after their incubation in digestive fluids. Conclusion: Both nanodelivery systems can be considered suitable carriers for oral administration, conferring protection to the incorporated resveratrol and allowing a controlled release after uptake. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=11880
Views: 1761 Dove Medical Press
360° suture trabeculotomy ab interno - video abstract 75739
 
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Video abstract of case series paper “Prospective, noncomparative, nonrandomized case study of short-term outcomes of 360° suture trabeculotomy ab interno in patients with open-angle glaucoma” published in the Clinical Opthalmology journal by Sato T, Hirata A, and Mizoguchi T. Background: In this paper, we describe 360° suture trabeculotomy (360°LOT) ab interno and the short-term course in patients who underwent this procedure. Methods: We prospectively studied 12 patients (12 eyes) with open-angle glaucoma who underwent 360°LOT ab interno at the Sato Eye Clinic between February and July 2014. The surgical procedure involved making a 1.7 mm temporal corneal incision, exposing an approximately 15° opening in the inner wall of Schlemm’s canal (nasal side) using a Trabectome with a gonioscope, and inserting a 5-0 nylon suture rounded at the tip into Schlemm’s canal opened via the anterior chamber. The suture was then threaded around Schlemm’s canal, and the tip of the suture that emerged on the other side was then advanced through the opening to make a circumferential incision. Intraocular pressure (IOP), number of anti-glaucoma medications used, complications, and the surgery completion rate were prospectively studied. Results: Mean IOP, which was 19.4 mmHg at baseline, showed a significant decrease at each of the monthly observation points, reaching 13.8 mmHg at 6 months after surgery (P=0.0004, paired t-test). The mean number of anti-glaucoma medications decreased from 3.2 at baseline to 1.1 at 6 months after surgery. IOP spikes $30 mmHg were seen in 25% of patients, but there were no other serious complications and the surgery completion rate was 92%. Conclusion: The 360°LOT ab interno procedure preserves the conjunctiva and sclera, and has a high surgery completion rate when using the anterior chamber approach, and could therefore be an effective short-term treatment of open-angle glaucoma. Read the original article here: http://www.dovepress.com/prospective-noncomparative-nonrandomized-case-study-of-short-term-outc-peer-reviewed-article-OPTH
Views: 2743 Dove Medical Press
Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis - Video abstract 69135
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Linking diet to acne metabolomics, inflammation, and comedogenesis: an update" published in the open access journal Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology by Melnik BC. Abstract: Acne vulgaris, an epidemic inflammatory skin disease of adolescence, is closely related to Western diet. Three major food classes that promote acne are: 1) hyperglycemic carbohydrates, 2) milk and dairy products, 3) saturated fats including trans-fats and deficient ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Diet-induced insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1)-signaling is superimposed on elevated IGF-1 levels during puberty, thereby unmasking the impact of aberrant nutrigenomics on sebaceous gland homeostasis. Western diet provides abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), glutamine, and palmitic acid. Insulin and IGF-1 suppress the activity of the metabolic transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1). Insulin, IGF-1, BCAAs, glutamine, and palmitate activate the nutrient-sensitive kinase mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), the key regulator of anabolism and lipogenesis. FoxO1 is a negative coregulator of androgen receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), liver X receptor-α, and sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), crucial transcription factors of sebaceous lipogenesis. mTORC1 stimulates the expression of PPARγ and SREBP-1c, promoting sebum production. SREBP-1c upregulates stearoyl-CoA- and Δ6-desaturase, enhancing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids in sebum triglycerides. Diet-mediated aberrations in sebum quantity (hyperseborrhea) and composition (dysseborrhea) promote Propionibacterium acnes overgrowth and biofilm formation with overexpression of the virulence factor triglyceride lipase increasing follicular levels of free palmitate and oleate. Free palmitate functions as a “danger signal,” stimulating toll-like receptor-2-mediated inflammasome activation with interleukin-1β release, Th17 differentiation, and interleukin-17-mediated keratinocyte proliferation. Oleate stimulates P. acnes adhesion, keratinocyte proliferation, and comedogenesis via interleukin-1α release. Thus, diet-induced metabolomic alterations promote the visible sebofollicular inflammasomopathy acne vulgaris. Nutrition therapy of acne has to increase FoxO1 and to attenuate mTORC1/SREBP-1c signaling. Patients should balance total calorie uptake and restrict refined carbohydrates, milk, dairy protein supplements, saturated fats, and trans-fats. A paleolithic-like diet enriched in vegetables and fish is recommended. Plant-derived mTORC1 inhibitors and ω-3-PUFAs are promising dietary supplements supporting nutrition therapy of acne vulgaris. Read the original article here: http://www.dovepress.com/linking-diet-to-acne-metabolomics-inflammation-and-comedogenesis-an-up-peer-reviewed-article-CCID
Views: 1585 Dove Medical Press
Morgellons disease - Video abstract: 39017
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "Characterization and evolution of dermal filaments from patients with Morgellons disease" by Middelveen MJ, Mayne PJ, Kahn DG, et al. Morgellons disease is an emerging skin disease characterized by formation of dermal filaments associated with multisystemic symptoms and tick-borne illness. Some clinicians hypothesize that these often colorful dermal filaments are textile fibers, either self-implanted by patients or accidentally adhering to lesions, and conclude that patients with this disease have delusions of infestation. We present histological observations and electron microscopic imaging from representative Morgellons disease samples revealing that dermal filaments in these cases are keratin and collagen in composition and result from proliferation and activation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in the epidermis. Spirochetes were detected in the dermatological specimens from our study patients, providing evidence that Morgellons disease is associated with an infectious process. Read the full manuscript here: http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=11895
Views: 3056 Dove Medical Press
Treatment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia - Video abstract 43404
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Addressing the unmet needs of patients with persistent negative symptoms of schizophrenia: emerging pharmacological treatment options" published in the open access journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Chue P, Lalonde JK. Abstract: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia represent an impairment of normal emotional responses, thought processes and behaviors, and include blunting or flattening of affect, alogia/aprosody, avolition/apathy, anhedonia, and asociality. Negative symptoms contribute to a reduced quality of life, increased functional disability, increased burden of illness, and poorer long-term outcomes, to a greater degree than positive symptoms. Primary negative symptoms are prominent and persistent in up to 26% of patients with schizophrenia, and they are estimated to occur in up to 58% of outpatients at any given time. Negative symptoms respond less well to medications than positive symptoms, and to date treatment options for negative symptoms have been limited, with no accepted standard treatment. Modest benefits have been reported with a variety of different agents, including second-generation antipsychotics and add-on therapy with antidepressants and other pharmacological classes. Recent clinical research focusing on negative symptoms target novel biological systems, such as glutamatergic neurotransmission. Different approaches include: enhancing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function with agents that bind directly to the glycine ligand site or with glycine reuptake inhibitors; influencing the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2/3) with positive allosteric modulators; and stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In conclusion, the lack of clearly efficacious pharmacological treatments for the management of negative symptoms represents a significant unmet need, especially considering the importance of these symptoms on patient outcomes. Hence, further research to identify and characterize novel pharmacological treatments for negative symptoms is greatly needed. Keywords: negative symptoms, schizophrenia, NMDA receptor, glycine reuptake inhibitors, metabotropic glutamate receptor-2 (mGluR2), 7-alpha nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists Read the review paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/addressing-the-unmet-needs-of-patients-with-persistent-negative-sympto-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 3664 Dove Medical Press
CEST and T2ex MRI contrast agents for molecular imaging - Video abstract [81742]
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Double agents and secret agents: the emerging fields of exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer and T2-exchange magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents for molecular imaging" published in the open access journal Research and Reports in Nuclear Medicine by Iman Daryaei and Mark D Pagel. Abstract: Two relatively new types of exogenous magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents may provide greater impact for molecular imaging by providing greater specificity for detecting molecular imaging biomarkers. Exogenous chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) agents rely on the selective saturation of the magnetization of a proton on an agent, followed by chemical exchange of a proton from the agent to water. The selective detection of a biomarker-responsive CEST signal and an unresponsive CEST signal, followed by the ratiometric comparison of these signals, can improve biomarker specificity. We refer to this improvement as a “double-agent” approach to molecular imaging. Exogenous T2-exchange agents also rely on chemical exchange of protons between the agent and water, especially with an intermediate rate that lies between the slow exchange rates of CEST agents and the fast exchange rates of traditional T1 and T2 agents. Because of this intermediate exchange rate, these agents have been relatively unknown and have acted as “secret agents” in the contrast agent research field. This review exposes these secret agents and describes the merits of double agents through examples of exogenous agents that detect enzyme activity, nucleic acids and gene expression, metabolites, ions, redox state, temperature, and pH. Future directions are also provided for improving both types of contrast agents for improved molecular imaging and clinical translation. Therefore, this review provides an overview of two new types of exogenous contrast agents that are becoming useful tools within the armamentarium of molecular imaging. Read the original article here: https://www.dovepress.com/double-agents-and-secret-agents-the-emerging-fields-of-exogenous-chemi-peer-reviewed-article-RRNM
Views: 1302 Dove Medical Press
Progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells - video abstract 51009
 
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Video abstract of review paper “From regenerative dentistry to regenerative medicine: progress, challenges, and potential applications of oral stem cells” published in the open access journal Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications by Li Xiao and Masanori Nasu. Abstract: Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and epithelial stem cells play essential roles in tissue repair and self-healing. Oral MSCs and epithelial stem cells can be isolated from adult human oral tissues, for example, teeth, periodontal ligament, and gingiva. Cocultivated adult oral epithelial stem cells and MSCs could represent some developmental events, such as epithelial invagination and tubular structure formation, signifying their potentials for tissue regeneration. Oral epithelial stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine over 1 decade. They are able to form a stratified cell sheet under three-dimensional culture conditions. Both experimental and clinical data indicate that the cell sheets can not only safely and effectively reconstruct the damaged cornea in humans, but also repair esophageal ulcer in animal models. Oral MSCs include dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED), stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), and mesenchymal stem cells from gingiva (GMSCs). They are widely applied in both regenerative dentistry and medicine. DPSCs, SHED, and SCAP are able to form dentin–pulp complex when being transplanted into immunodeficient animals. They have been experimentally used for the regeneration of dental pulp, neuron, bone muscle and blood vessels in animal models and have shown promising results. PDLSCs and GMSCs are demonstrated to be ideal cell sources for repairing the damaged tissues of periodontal, muscle, and tendon. Despite the abovementioned applications of oral stem cells, only a few human clinical trials are now underway to use them for the treatment of certain diseases. Since clinical use is the end goal, their true regenerative power and safety need to be further examined. Read this review paper here http://www.dovepress.com/from-regenerative-dentistry-to-regenerative-medicine-progress-challeng-peer-reviewed-article-SCCAA
Views: 3150 Dove Medical Press
IVIVR generalized model - Video abstract: 41401
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "In vitro-in vivo relationship (IVIVR) generalized model based on artificial neural networks" published in the open access journal of Drug Design, Development and Therapy by Aleksander Mendyk, Paweł Tuszyński, Sebastian Polak et al. Read this original research and sign up to receive Drug Design, Development and Therapy here: http://www.dovepress.com/generalized-in-vitro-in-vivo-relationship-ivivr-model-based-on-artific-peer-reviewed-article-DDDT
Views: 1745 Dove Medical Press
Lymphocytic leukemia-associated chromosomal abnormalities - Video abstract: 18669
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Chronic lymphocytic leukemia-associated chromosomal abnormalities and miRNA deregulation" published in open access journal The Application of Clinical Genetics by Yvonne Kiefer, Christoph Schulte, Markus Tiemann, Joern Bullerdiek. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-associated-chromosomal-abnormalities-and--peer-reviewed-article Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is the most common leukemia in adults. By cytogenetic investigations major subgroups of the disease can be identified that reflect different routes of tumor development. Of these chromosomal deviations, trisomy 12 and deletions of parts of either the long arm of chromosome 13, the long arm of chromosome 11, or the short arm of chromosome 17 are most commonly detected. In some of these aberrations the molecular target has been identified as eg, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) in case of deletions of chromosomal region 11q22~23 and the genes encoding microRNAs miR-15a/16-1 as likely targets of deletions of chromosomal band 13q14.3. Of note, these aberrations do not characterize independent subgroups but often coexist within the metaphases of one tumor. Generally, complex aberrations are associated with a worse prognosis than simple karyotypic alterations. Due to smaller sizes of the missing segment the detection of recurrent deletions is not always possible by means of classical cytogenetics but requires more advanced techniques as in particular fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Nevertheless, at this time it is not recommended to replace classical cytogenetics by FISH because this would miss additional information given by complex or secondary karyotypic alterations. However, the results of cytogenetic analyses allow the stratification of prognostic and predictive groups of the disease. Of these, the group characterized by deletions involving TP53 is clinically most relevant. In the future refined methods as eg, array-based comparative genomic hybridization will supplement the existing techniques to characterize CLL.
Views: 1752 Dove Medical Press
3D printing for patient-specific orthopedics – Video abstract [ID 99614]
 
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Video abstract of a review paper “3D-printed patient-specific applications in orthopedics” published in the open access journal Orthopedic Research and Reviews by Wong KC. Abstract: With advances in both medical imaging and computer programming, two-dimensional axial images can be processed into other reformatted views (sagittal and coronal) and three-dimensional (3D) virtual models that represent a patients’ own anatomy. This processed digital information can be analyzed in detail by orthopedic surgeons to perform patient-specific orthopedic procedures. The use of 3D printing is rising and has become more prevalent in medical applications over the last decade as surgeons and researchers are increasingly utilizing the technology’s flexibility in manufacturing objects. 3D printing is a type of manufacturing process in which materials such as plastic or metal are deposited in layers to create a 3D object from a digital model. This additive manufacturing method has the advantage of fabricating objects with complex freeform geometry, which is impossible using traditional subtractive manufacturing methods. Specifically in surgical applications, the 3D printing techniques can not only generate models that give a better understanding of the complex anatomy and pathology of the patients and aid in education and surgical training, but can also produce patient-specific surgical guides or even custom implants that are tailor-made to the surgical requirements. As the clinical workflow of the 3D printing technology continues to evolve, orthopedic surgeons should embrace the latest knowledge of the technology and incorporate it into their clinical practice for patient-specific orthopedic applications. This paper is written to help orthopedic surgeons stay up-to-date on the emerging 3D technology, starting from the acquisition of clinical imaging to 3D printing for patient-specific applications in orthopedics. It 1) presents the necessary steps to prepare the medical images that are required for 3D printing, 2) reviews the current applications of 3D printing in patient-specific orthopedic procedures, 3) discusses the potential advantages and limitations of 3D-printed custom orthopedic implants, and 4) suggests the directions for future development. The 3D printing technology has been reported to be beneficial in patient-specific orthopedics, such as in the creation of anatomic models for surgical planning, education and surgical training, patient-specific instruments, and 3D-printed custom implants. Besides being anatomically conformed to a patient’s surgical requirement, 3D-printed implants can be fabricated with scaffold lattices that may facilitate osteointegration and reduce implant stiffness. However, limitations including high cost of the implants, the lead time in manufacturing, and lack of intraoperative flexibility need to be addressed. New biomimetic materials have been investigated for use in 3D printing. To increase utilization of 3D printing technology in orthopedics, an all-in-one computer platform should be developed for easy planning and seamless communications among different care providers. Further studies are needed to investigate the real clinical efficacy of 3D printings in orthopedic applications. View the original article here: https://www.dovepress.com/3d-printed-patient-specific-applications-in-orthopedics-peer-reviewed-article-ORR
Views: 1956 Dove Medical Press
Goldberg UBM file in motion during accommodation - Supplementary video: 25983
 
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Supplementary video of the UBM file in motion of a 25-year-old eye during accommodation, from the original research paper published in Clinical Ophthalmology "Computer-animated model of accommodation and theory of reciprocal zonular action" by Daniel B Goldberg. Read the original research article here: http://www.dovepress.com/computer-animated-model-of-accommodation-and-theory-of-reciprocal-zonu-peer-reviewed-article-OPTH Abstract: This report presents a computer-animated model of the structures of accommodation based on new understanding of the anatomy of the zonular apparatus integrated with current understanding of the mechanism of accommodation. Analysis of this model suggests a new, consolidated theory of the mechanism of accommodation including a new theory of reciprocal zonular action. A three-dimensional animated model of the eye in accommodation and disaccommodation was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator. Current understanding of the anatomy of the zonule and the attachments of the vitreous zonule to the anterior hyaloid membrane is incomplete. Recent studies have demonstrated three components of the vitreous zonule: (1) anterior vitreous zonule (previously "hyalocapsular" zonule), which attaches the ciliary plexus in the valleys of the ciliary processes to the anterior hyaloid membrane in the region medial to the ciliary body and Weiger's ligament; (2) intermediate vitreous zonule, which attaches the ciliary plexus to the anterior hyaloid peripherally; and (3) posterior vitreous zonule, which creates a sponge-like ring at the attachment zone that anchors the pars plana zonules. The pars plana zonules attach posteriorly to the elastic choroid above the ora serrata. Analysis of the computer-animated model demonstrates the synchronized movements of the accommodative structures in accommodation and disaccommodation. Utilizing model-based reasoning, it is shown that the posterior zonules attach to and provide traction to the anterior vitreous membrane and Weiger's ligament. This model supports the concept that the ciliary body/zonule/anterior hyaloid complex contributes to the changes in the posterior lens capsule during accommodation, supporting an extralenticular component to accommodation and demonstrating an alternative to the "vitreous support" theories. There is a reciprocal action of the anterior zonules and the posterior zonules. During ciliary body contraction, the anterior zonules lose tension while the posterior zonules stretch and exert force on the posterior lens capsule playing a role in shaping the posterior lens thickness and curvature. During ciliary body relaxation, the posterior zonules lose tension as the lens flattens and is pulled back by the increasing tension of the anterior zonules.
Views: 1752 Dove Medical Press
Diabetes and tuberculosis control - Video abstract 45082
 
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Video abstract of review paper "Worldwide increase in diabetes: implications for tuberculosis control" published in the open access journal Research and Reports in Tropical Medicine by Fisher-Hoch. Abstract: Diabetes presents a greater threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control than previously appreciated, with risk of reversing the achievements of several decades. An estimated 382 million people worldwide currently have diabetes, half of whom are undiagnosed. Most live in low- and middle-income countries alongside many of the two billion individuals infected with TB. Though the frequency of TB in type 1 diabetes was known for centuries, only recently have we observed the tripling of TB in type 2 diabetes, most significantly in high-burden TB populations such as in Peru, Russia, and the People's Republic of China. In India diabetes is estimated to have increased TB cases by 46% between 1998 and 2008. Diabetes is a greater long-term threat to TB control than human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) since ten-fold more people are affected by diabetes than HIV/AIDS in larger geographic areas. Diabetes in TB increases drug resistance, treatment failure, and mortality, and may increase the spread of drug-resistant strains. Delayed or missed diagnosis fuels transmission of TB and hinders control of diabetes. Tailored treatment for diabetes patients requires well-designed clinical trials. The World Health Organization (WHO) framework for care and control of diabetes and TB needs improved screening strategies. Determination of how best to establish bi-directional screening is hampered by lack of affordable and reliable methods. Recommendations include education of health care providers, patients, and communities. Structured diabetes programs with registries and effective follow-up could be modeled on and communicate with existing TB programs. Vital research should address new diagnostic tools, lowering cost and evaluation of intervention strategies, as well as better understanding of the impaired immune responses that make diabetes patients more susceptible to TB leading to targeted therapies. Solutions will require the combination of good science, good decision-making, adequate funding, and political will. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/worldwide-increase-in-diabetes-implications-for-tuberculosis-control-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 4972 Dove Medical Press
Culture impacts key health care outcomes – Video abstract 126381
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “The imperative of culture: a quantitative analysis of the impact of culture on workforce engagement, patient experience, physician engagement, value-based purchasing, and turnover” published in the Journal of Healthcare Leadership by Owens K, Eggers J, Keller S, et al. Abstract: Current uncertainty for the future of the health care landscape is placing an increasing amount of pressure on leadership teams to be prepared to steer their organization forward in a number of potential directions. It is commonly recognized among health care leaders that culture will either enable or disable organizational success. However, very few studies empirically link culture to health care-specific performance outcomes. Nearly every health care organization in the US specifies its cultural aspirations through mission and vision statements and values. Ambitions of patient-centeredness, care for the community, workplace of choice, and world-class quality are frequently cited; yet, little definitive research exists to quantify the importance of building high-performing cultures. Our study examined the impact of cultural attributes defined by a culture index (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.88) on corresponding performance with key health care measures. We mapped results of the culture index across data sets, compared results, and evaluated variations in performance among key indicators for leaders. Organizations that perform in the top quartile for our culture index statistically significantly outperformed those in the bottom quartile on all but one key performance indicator tested. The culture top quartile organizations outperformed every domain for employee engagement, physician engagement, patient experience, and overall value-based purchasing performance with statistical significance. Culture index top quartile performers also had a 3.4% lower turnover rate than the bottom quartile performers. Finally, culture index top quartile performers earned an additional 1% on value-based purchasing. Our findings demonstrate a meaningful connection between performance in the culture index and organizational performance. To best impact these key performance outcomes, health care leaders should pay attention to culture and actively steer workforce engagement in attributes that represent the culture index, such as treating patients as valued customers, having congruency between employee and organizational values, promoting employee pride, and encouraging the feeling that being a member of the organization is rewarding, in order to leverage culture as a competitive advantage. Read the full paper here: https://www.dovepress.com/the-imperative-of-culture-a-quantitative-analysis-of-the-impact-of-cul-peer-reviewed-article-JHL
Views: 1636 Dove Medical Press
Sleep problems in university students – an intervention – Video abstract ID 142067
 
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Video abstract of Original Research paper “Sleep problems in university students – an intervention” published in the open access journal Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment by Schlarb AA, Friedrich A, Claßen M. Introduction: Up to 60% of all college students suffer from a poor sleep quality, and 7.7% meet all criteria of an insomnia disorder. Sleep problems have a great impact on the students’ daily life, for example, the grade point average. Due to irregular daytime routines, chronotype changes, side jobs and exam periods, they need specialized treatments for improving sleep. “Studieren wie im Schlaf” (SWIS; (studying in your sleep)) is a multicomponent sleep training that combines Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia and Hypnotherapy for Insomnia to improve students’ sleep, insomnia symptoms and nightmares. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acceptance, feasibility and the first effects of SWIS. Methods: Twenty-seven students (mean =24.24, standard deviation =3.57) participated in a study of pre–post design. The acceptance and feasibility were measured with questionnaires. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep logs and actigraphy were implemented. Further variables encompassed daytime sleepiness, sleep-related personality traits and cognitions about sleep. Results: Seventy-four percent of the participants reported symptoms of an insomnia disorder, and 51.9% fulfilled all criteria of an insomnia disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition). Correspondingly, the students suffered from clinically relevant sleep problems according to the PSQI. The SWIS sleep training is a well-accepted and feasible program. Significant improvements were observed in the subjective sleep quality and sleep-related personality traits, as well as clinical improvements in objective sleep measures. Discussion: Findings showed that SWIS is a feasible program for the treatment of sleep problems in college and university students due to its various effects on sleep and cognitive outcomes. Further evaluation of follow-up measurements and additional variables, that is, cognitive performance and mental health, is needed. Read the original article here: https://www.dovepress.com/sleep-problems-in-university-students-ndash-an-intervention-peer-reviewed-article-NDT
Views: 2316 Dove Medical Press
Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted oncotherapy – Video abstract 56932
 
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Video abstract of a review paper "Polymeric nanoparticles for targeted treatment in oncology: current insights" published in the open access International Journal of Nanomedicine by Prabhu RH, Patravale VB, Joshi MD. Abstract: Chemotherapy, a major strategy for cancer treatment, lacks the specificity to localize the cancer therapeutics in the tumor site, thereby affecting normal healthy tissues and advocating toxic adverse effects. Nanotechnological intervention has greatly revolutionized the therapy of cancer by surmounting the current limitations in conventional chemotherapy, which include undesirable biodistribution, cancer cell drug resistance, and severe systemic side effects. Nanoparticles (NPs) achieve preferential accumulation in the tumor site by virtue of their passive and ligand-based targeting mechanisms. Polymer-based nanomedicine, an arena that entails the use of polymeric NPs, polymer micelles, dendrimers, polymersomes, polyplexes, polymer–lipid hybrid systems, and polymer–drug/protein conjugates for improvement in efficacy of cancer therapeutics, has been widely explored. The broad scope for chemically modifying the polymer into desired construct makes it a versatile delivery system. Several polymer-based therapeutic NPs have been approved for clinical use. This review provides an insight into the advances in polymer-based targeted nanocarriers with focus on therapeutic aspects in the field of oncology. The full paper is available at: http://www.dovepress.com/polymeric-nanoparticles-for-targeted-treatment-in-oncology-current-ins-peer-reviewed-article-IJN
Views: 1072 Dove Medical Press
Cisplatin-bearing SPIONs for targeted drug delivery - Video abstract 63433
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "Development and characterization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a cisplatin-bearing polymer coating for targeted drug delivery" published in the open access International Journal of Nanomedicine by Unterweger H, Tietze R, Janko C, et al. Abstract A highly selective and efficient cancer therapy can be achieved using magnetically directed superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) bearing a sufficient amount of the therapeutic agent. In this project, SPIONs with a dextran and cisplatin-bearing hyaluronic acid coating were successfully synthesized as a novel cisplatin drug delivery system. Transmission electron microscopy images as well as X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the individual magnetite particles were around 4.5 nm in size and monocrystalline. The small crystallite sizes led to the superparamagnetic behavior of the particles, which was exemplified in their magnetization curves, acquired using superconducting quantum interference device measurements. Hyaluronic acid was bound to the initially dextran-coated SPIONs by esterification. The resulting amide bond linkage was verified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The additional polymer layer increased the vehicle size from 22 nm to 56 nm, with a hyaluronic acid to dextran to magnetite weight ratio of 51:29:20. A maximum payload of 330 μg cisplatin/mL nanoparticle suspension was achieved, thus the particle size was further increased to around 77 nm with a zeta potential of -45 mV. No signs of particle precipitation were observed over a period of at least 8 weeks. Analysis of drug-release kinetics using the dialysis tube method revealed that these were driven by inverse ligand substitution and diffusion through the polymer shell as well as enzymatic degradation of hyaluronic acid. The biological activity of the particles was investigated in a nonadherent Jurkat cell line using flow cytometry. Further, cell viability and proliferation was examined in an adherent PC-3 cell line using xCELLigence analysis. Both tests demonstrated that particles without cisplatin were biocompatible with these cells, whereas particles with the drug induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, with secondary necrosis after prolonged incubation. In conclusion, combination of dextran-coated SPIONs with hyaluronic acid and cisplatin represents a promising approach for magnetic drug targeting in the treatment of cancer. Read the Original Research paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/development-and-characterization-of-magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles--peer-reviewed-article-IJN.
Views: 1895 Dove Medical Press
Meaning-making of FGC: the child's perspective - Video abstract: 40447
 
06:27
Video abstract of original research paper "Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children's perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual" published in the open access International Journal of Women's Health by Jon-Hakon Schultz and Inger-Lise Lien. Abstract: How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Read this original research and sign up to receive International Journal of Women's Health here: http://www.dovepress.com/meaning-making-of-female-genital-cutting-childrenrsquos-perception-and-peer-reviewed-article-IJWH
Views: 1713 Dove Medical Press
Intellijoint HIP 3D mini-optical navigation tool for THA – Video abstract [ID 119161]
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Intellijoint HIP®: a 3D mini-optical navigation tool for improving intraoperative accuracy during total hip arthroplasty” published in the open access journal Medical Devices: Evidence and Research by Paprosky and Muir. Abstract: Total hip arthroplasty is an increasingly common procedure used to address degenerative changes in the hip joint due to osteoarthritis. Although generally associated with good results, among the challenges associated with hip arthroplasty are accurate measurement of biomechanical parameters such as leg length, offset, and cup position, discrepancies of which can lead to significant long-term consequences such as pain, instability, neurological deficits, dislocation, and revision surgery, as well as patient dissatisfaction and, increasingly, litigation. Current methods of managing these parameters are limited, with manual methods such as outriggers or calipers being used to monitor leg length; however, these are susceptible to small intraoperative changes in patient position and are therefore inaccurate. Computer-assisted navigation, while offering improved accuracy, is expensive and cumbersome, in addition to adding significantly to procedural time. To address the technological gap in hip arthroplasty, a new intraoperative navigation tool Intellijoint HIP has been developed. This innovative, 3D mini-optical navigation tool provides real-time, intraoperative data on leg length, offset, and cup position and allows for improved accuracy and precision in component selection and alignment. Benchtop and simulated clinical use testing have demonstrated excellent accuracy, with the navigation tool able to measure leg length and offset to within 1 mm and cup position to within 1 in both anteversion and inclination. This study describes the indications, procedural technique, and early accuracy results of the Intellijoint HIP surgical tool, which offers an accurate and easyto- use option for hip surgeons to manage leg length, offset, and cup position intraoperatively. Read the Original Research paper here: https://www.dovepress.com/intellijoint-hipreg-a-3d-mini-optical-navigation-tool-for-improving-in-peer-reviewed-article-MDER
Views: 1945 Dove Medical Press
True story about HIV - Video abstract: 26578
 
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Video abstract of research paper "True story about HIV: theory of viral sequestration and reserve infection" published in journal HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care by Simon Situma Barasa. Read expert opinion article here: http://www.dovepress.com/true-story-about-hiv-theory-of-viral-sequestration-and-reserve-infecti-peer-reviewed-article-HIV Abstract: Radical cure of infectious disease lies in the principle that the contagion is eliminated and its propagation within the body is stopped. By understanding the true mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, effective cure is possible. Vertical research in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has produced much advanced data about its nature without discovering a true cure, implying that the infective concept may have been missed. Overall, current interventions have had a significant impact on the pandemic, but they definitely have not achieved a cure. Given that modern research has already provided almost all significant data on HIV/AIDS, this inevitably means that understanding of the HIV and AIDS mechanism in the human body and population is less than sufficient. This paper advances a new concept using the available scientific data in an attempt to open a new frontier in HIV research.
Views: 1238 Dove Medical Press
Sustained release pregabalin with methylcobalamin in neuropathic pain - Video abstract 45271
 
03:54
Video abstract of original research paper Sustained-release pregabalin with methylcobalamin in neuropathic pain: an Indian real-life experience published in the open access International Journal of General Medicine by Yasmin U Dongre and Onkar C Swami. Introduction: Neuropathic pain is intense in nature and difficult to manage. Thus, the primary goal is maximum relief from pain. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin in reducing neuropathic pain in Indian patients, in the real-life situation. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, open-labeled, single-arm, observational, 14-day study. Patients received fixed dose combination of 75 or 150 mg sustained-release pregabalin combined with 1500 mcg immediate release methylcobalamin, depending on the clinical requirement. Data was collected for pain reduction and other positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, including hyperesthesia, paresthesia, numbness/tingling, burning sensation, muscle weakness, sleep disturbances, and impairment of movement. Pain intensity was measured on a ten-point visual analog scale (VAS) (0 represented "no pain," and 10 represented "worst pain ever"). The safety of the drug was also evaluated throughout the study duration. Data was analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: The overall reduction in mean VAS score over 14 days was 72.3%. The reduction in mean VAS score was significant as early as the first week. Both positive and negative symptoms of peripheral neuropathy were significantly improved in greater than 50% patients within the 2 weeks. Giddiness (4.7%), followed by sedation (3.6%), dizziness (2.9%), drowsiness (2.3%), and nausea (2.3%) were the most commonly observed adverse effects. The overall efficacy and tolerability was rated as good to excellent by greater than 95% of the investigators and patients. Conclusion: Fixed dose combination of sustained-release pregabalin and methylcobalamin significantly reduced neuropathic pain, with significant improvement in both the positive and negative symptoms associated with neuropathy, in Indian patients and was well tolerated. Read the original research paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/sustained-release-pregabalin-with-methylcobalamin-in-neuropathic-pain--peer-reviewed-article
Views: 19789 Dove Medical Press
Outcome of placenta previa and placenta accreta - 53865
 
01:42
Video abstract of original research paper Maternal and neonatal outcomes of placenta previa and placenta accreta: three years of experience with a two-consultant approach published in the open access journal International Journal of Women's Health by GA Kassem and AK Alzahrani. Objective: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with placenta previa (PP) and placenta accreta (PA). Methods: The study population comprised all patients who had a cesarean section for PP and PA at a tertiary referral hospital in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from December 2009 to December 2012. Maternal and neonatal data were obtained from medical records and the hospital database system. PA cases were managed by a multispeciality team, including two obstetric consultants. Results: In total, 122 patients with PP were identified, with PA found in 25 cases. The median intraoperative blood loss in cases of PA was 2,000 (mean 3,000) mL, with a loss of $2,000 mL occurring in 72%, and $5,000 mL in 20%. The median packed red blood cell transfusion requirement was 6 (mean 7.7) units, and 28% received $10 units. Fetal growth restriction was diagnosed in two cases with known maternal medical disorders. Four cases (3.3%) were diagnosed as small for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the neonates was at the 10th--50th percentile according to Hadlock fetal growth charts. Conclusion: The presence of a second obstetric consultant among the multispeciality team during surgery for PA was associated with a reduction in blood loss and a decreased need for large-volume blood transfusion. The rate of fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age in PP was average, but the babies were relatively small (level 2 evidence). Keywords: placenta previa, placenta accreta, maternal outcome, neonatal outcome Read the Original Research paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/maternal-and-neonatal-outcomes-of-placenta-previa-and-placenta-accreta-peer-reviewed-article .
Views: 1427 Dove Medical Press
Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation - Video abstract [30159]
 
03:54
Video abstract of review paper "Rivaroxaban as an oral anticoagulant for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation" published in the open access journal Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management by Turpie AGG. Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the developed world and is associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of stroke, accounting for up to 15% of strokes in the general population. The European Society of Cardiology now recommends direct oral anticoagulants, such as rivaroxaban, apixaban, and dabigatran, in preference to vitamin K antagonist therapy for the prevention of stroke in patients with AF. This review focuses on the direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban, summarizing the properties that make rivaroxaban appropriate for anticoagulant therapy in this indication (including its predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile and once-daily dosing regimen) and describing data from the Phase III ROCKET AF trial, which showed once-daily rivaroxaban to be noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF. In this trial, similar rates of major and nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding were observed; however, when compared with warfarin, rivaroxaban was associated with clinically significant reductions in intracranial and fatal bleeding. On the basis of these results, rivaroxaban was approved in both the United States and the European Union for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular AF. Subanalyses of ROCKET AF data showed rivaroxaban to have consistent efficacy and safety across a wide range of patients, and studies to confirm these results in real-world settings are underway. This review also describes practical considerations for treatment with rivaroxaban in clinical practice (including dose reductions in specific high-risk patients, eg, those with renal impairment), recommendations for the transition from vitamin K antagonists to rivaroxaban, the management of bleeding events, and the measurement of rivaroxaban exposure. Read the full paper here: http://www.dovepress.com/rivaroxaban-as-an-oral-anticoagulant-for-stroke-prevention-in-atrial-f-peer-reviewed-article
Views: 5666 Dove Medical Press
Wrinkle reduction by hydrolyzed egg membrane – Video abstract [ID 111999]
 
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Video abstract of original research paper “Reduction of facial wrinkles by hydrolyzed watersoluble egg membrane associated with reduction of free radical stress and support of matrix production by dermal fibroblasts” published in the open access journal Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology by authors Jensen et al. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of water-soluble egg membrane (WSEM) on wrinkle reduction in a clinical pilot study and to elucidate specific mechanisms of action using primary human immune and dermal cell-based bioassays. Methods: To evaluate the effects of topical application of WSEM (8 percent) on human skin, an openlabel 8-week study was performed involving 20 healthy females between the age of 45 years and 65 years. High-resolution photography and digital analysis were used to evaluate the wrinkle depth in the facial skin areas beside the eye (crow’s feet). WSEM was tested for total antioxidant capacity and effects on the formation of reactive oxygen species by human polymorphonuclear cells. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were used for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of the antioxidant response element genes Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1. Evaluation of effects on human primary dermal fibroblasts in vitro included cellular viability and production of the matrix components collagen and elastin. Results: Topical use of a WSEM-containing facial cream for 8 weeks resulted in a significant reduction of wrinkle depth (P less than 0.05). WSEM contained antioxidants and reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species by inflammatory cells in vitro. Despite lack of a quantifiable effect on Nrf2, WSEM induced the gene expression of downstream Nqo1, Gclm, Gclc, and Hmox1 in human keratinocytes. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with WSEM produced more collagen and elastin than untreated cells or cells treated with dbcAMP control. The increase in collagen production was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). Conclusion: The topical use of WSEM on facial skin significantly reduced the wrinkle depth. The underlying mechanisms of this effect may be related to protection from free radical damage at the cellular level and induction of several antioxidant response elements, combined with stimulation of human dermal fibroblasts to secrete high levels of matrix components. Read the original research paper here: https://www.dovepress.com/reduction-of-facial-wrinkles-by-hydrolyzed-water-soluble-egg-membrane--peer-reviewed-article-CCID
Views: 947 Dove Medical Press
The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring - Video abstract: 27175
 
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Video abstract of case report "The management of cornea blindness from severe corneal scarring, with the Athens Protocol (transepithelial topography-guided PRK therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking)" published in the open access journal Clinical Ophthalmology by Anastasios John Kanellopoulos. Read the case report here: http://www.dovepress.com/the-management-of-cornea-blindness-from-severe-corneal-scarring-with-t-peer-reviewed-article Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combined transepithelial topography-guided photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) therapeutic remodeling, combined with same-day, collagen cross-linking (CXL). This protocol was used for the management of cornea blindness due to severe corneal scarring. Methods: A 57-year-old man had severe corneal blindness in both eyes. Both corneas had significant central scars attributed to a firework explosion 45 years ago, when the patient was 12 years old. Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was 20/100 both eyes (OU) with refraction: +4.00, --4.50 at 135° in the right eye and +3.50, --1.00 at 55° in the left. Respective keratometries were: 42.3, 60.4 at 17° and 35.8, 39.1 at 151.3°. Cornea transplantation was the recommendation by multiple cornea specialists as the treatment of choice. We decided prior to considering a transplant to employ the Athens Protocol (combined topography-guided partial PRK and CXL) in the right eye in February 2010 and in the left eye in September 2010. The treatment plan for both eyes was designed on the topography-guided wavelight excimer laser platform. Results: Fifteen months after the right eye treatment, the right cornea had improved translucency and was topographically stable with uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with refraction +0.50, --2.00 at 5°. We noted a similar outcome after similar treatment applied in the left eye with UDVA 20/50 and CDVA 20/40 with --0.50, --2.00 at 170° at the 8-month follow-up. Conclusion: In this case, the introduction of successful management of severe cornea abnormalities and scarring with the Athens Protocol may provide an effective alternative to other existing surgical or medical options.
Views: 1477 Dove Medical Press
Reproduction of a test for nonexpert swimmers - Video abstract: 34447
 
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Video abstract of original research paper "Reproduction of an aerobic endurance test for nonexpert swimmers" published in the open access Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare by Adalberto Veronese da Costa, Manoel da Cunha Costa, Daniel Medeiros Carlos, et al. Conclusion: The Progressive Swim Test for nonexpert swimmers produces comparable results for noncompetitive swimmers with a favorable degree of reproducibility, thus presenting possible applications for researching the physiological performance of nonexpert swimmers. Read this original research and sign up to receive the Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare here: http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=10931
Views: 350 Dove Medical Press